# ASTM D6062 - 19

Designation D6062 − 19Standard Guide forPersonal Samplers of Health-Related Aerosol Fractions1This standard is issued under the fixed designation D6062; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon ´ indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This guide defines conventions for personal samplers ofspecific particle-size-dependent fractions of any given non-fibrous airborne aerosol. Such samplers are used for assessinghealth effects and in the setting of and testing for compliancewith permissible exposure limits in the workplace and ambientenvironment. The conventions have been adopted by theInternational Standards Organization ISO 7708, the ComitéEuropéen de Normalisation CEN EN 481, and the AmericanConference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACGIH1.2The conventions were developed 2 in part from health-effects studies reviewed 3 by the ACGIH and in part as acompromise between definitions proposed by the ACGIH 3and by the British Medical Research Council BMRC 4.Conventions are given here for inhalable, thoracic, and respi-rable fractions.1.2 This guide is complementary to Test D4532,which describes the perance of respirable dust cyclonesand operational procedures for use. The procedures, specifi-cally the optimal flow rate, are still valid although the esti-mated accuracy differs somewhat from use with previousaerosol fraction definitions. Details on these instruments havebeen published 5-11.1.3 Limitations1.3.1 The definitions given here were adopted by the agen-cies listed in 1.1 in part on the basis of expected health effectsof the different size fractions, but in part allowing for availablesampling equipment. The original adoption by CEN was, infact, for the eventual setting of common standards by the ECcountries while permitting the use of a variety of instrumenta-tion. Deviations of the sampling conventions from health-related effects are as follows1.3.1.1 The inhalable fraction actually depends on the spe-cific air speed and direction, on the breathing rate, and onwhether breathing is by nose or mouth. The values given in theinhalable convention are for representative values of breathingrate and represent averages over all wind directions.1.3.1.2 The respirable and thoracic fractions vary fromindividual to individual and with the breathing pattern. Theconventions are approximations to the average case.1.3.1.3 Each convention applies strictly to a fraction pen-etrating to a region, rather than depositing. Therefore, samplescollected according to the conventions may only approximatecorrelations with biological effects. For example, the respirableconvention overestimates the fraction of very small particlesdeposited in the alveolar region of the respiratory systembecause some of the particles are actually exhaled withoutbeing deposited 12. In many workplaces, these very smallparticles contribute insignificantly to the sampled mass.Furthermore, the large variability between individuals and thedetails of clearance may be as important as this type of effect.1.3.1.4 The thoracic convention applies to mouth breathing,for which aerosol collection is greater than during nosebreathing.1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded asstandard. No other units of measurement are included in thisstandard.1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter-mine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.1.6 This international standard was developed in accor-dance with internationally recognized principles on standard-ization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recom-mendations issued by the World Trade Organization TechnicalBarriers to Trade TBT Committee.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards3D1356 Terminology Relating to Sampling and Analysis ofAtmospheres1This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D22 on Air Qualityand is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D22.04 on Workplace Air Quality.Current edition approved April 1, 2019. Published June 2019. Originallyapproved in 1996. Last previous edition approved in 2012 as D6062 – 07 2012.DOI 10.1520/D6062-19.2The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to a list of references at the end ofthis standard.3For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume ination, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United StatesThis international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade TBT Committee.1D4532 Test for Respirable Dust in Workplace At-mospheres Using Cyclone Samplers2.2 International StandardsISO 7708 Air QualityParticle Size Fraction Definitions forHealth-Related Sampling, 19954CEN EN 481 Standard on Workplace Atmospheres. SizeFraction Definitions for the Measurement of AirborneParticles, 19935CEN EN 13205 Standards on Workplace Exposure. Assess-ment of Sampler Perance for Measurement of Air-borne Particle Concentration, 201453. Terminology3.1 Definitions3.1.1 For terms that are not defined herein, refer to Termi-nology D1356.3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard3.2.1 aerodynamic diameter, D, µmthe diameter of asphere of density of 103kg/m3with the same settling velocityas a particle of interest.3.2.2 inhalable convention, EIthe target specification forsampling instruments when the inhalable fraction is the frac-tion of interest. D13563.2.2.1 DiscussionSpecifically, EIis taken ISO 7708,CEN EN 481, and the ACGIH threshold limit values 1asfollowsEI5 0.50 11exp20.06 D, D,100 µm 1defined in terms of aerodynamic diameter, D.3.2.2.2 DiscussionThe inhalable convention EIis illus-trated in Fig. 1. Note that EI→ 0.50 50 at large D. Eq 1approximates the inhalable fraction when averaged over allwind directions for windspeeds v 4 m/s. At higher windspeeds, the following convention has been tentatively sug-gested as follows 13EI5 0.50 11exp20.06 D11025v2.75exp0.055 D, 24 m/s,v,9 m/s3.2.3 inhalable fractionthe total airborne particle massfraction inhaled through the nose and mouth, that is, whichenters the respiratory system. D13563.2.4 respirable convention, ERthe target sampling curvefor instruments approximating the respirable fraction. D13563.2.4.1 DiscussionERis defined ISO 7708, CEN EN 481,and the presentACGIH Threshold Limit Values 1 in terms ofthe cumulative normal function 14 Φ as followsER5 EI·Φ1nDR/D/σR 3where the indicated constants are DR 4.25 µm andσR ln[1.5]. The cumulative normal function Φ is easilyapproximated using the algorithm given in Appendix X1.3.2.4.2 DiscussionFor protecting the sick or infirm orchildren, a quantity DR 2.5 µm has been suggested ISO7708. This accounts for the fact that in children and in adultswith certain chest diseases, the tracheobronchial region is moreeffective at collecting particles of small aerodynamic diameterthan it is in healthy adults. The respirable convention ERisillustrated in Fig. 1. Note that 50 of total airborne particleswith D 4.0 µm are in the respirable fraction.3.2.5 respirable fractionthe mass fraction of total airborneparticles penetrating to the alveolar region of the respiratorysystem.3.2.6 sampling conventiona target specification that ap-proximates to a specific health-related fraction of aerosol ofgiven aerodynamic diameter. A sampling convention is speci-fied in terms of the sampling efficiency E, the fraction ofparticles at given aerodynamic diameter collected by an idealinstrument.3.2.7 thoracic convention, ETthe target sampling curve forinstruments approximating the thoracic fraction. ETis definedISO 7708, CEN EN 481, and the present ACGIH ThresholdLimit Values 1 in terms of the cumulative normal function14 Φ asET5 EI·Φ1nDT/D/σT 4where the indicated constant parameters are DT 11.64µm and σT ln[1.5].3.2.7.1 DiscussionThe thoracic convention ETis illus-trated in Fig. 1. Note that 50 of total airborne particles withD 10 µm are in the thoracic fraction.3.2.8 thoracic fractionthe mass fraction of total airborneparticles penetrating beyond the larynx.3.3 Symbols and Abbreviations3.3.1 D µmaerosol aerodynamic diameter.3.3.2 DRµm respirable sampling convention parameterequal to 4.25 µm in the case of healthy adults, or 2.5 µm for thesick or infirm or children.3.3.3 DTµm thoracic sampling convention parameterequal to 11.64 µm.3.3.4 Esampling convention in general.3.3.5 EIinhalable sampling convention.3.3.6 ERrespirable sampling convention.3.3.7 ETthoracic sampling convention.3.3.8 v m/swind speed.3.3.9 σRrespirable sampling convention parameter equalto ln[1.5].3.3.10 σTthoracic sampling convention parameter equal toln[1.5].3.3.11 Φ[x]cumulative normal function defined, givenargument x.4. Significance and Use4.1 This guide is intended to provide the conventionsadopted by the International Standards Organization ISO7708, the Comité Européen de Normalisation CEN EN 481,and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial4Available from International Organization for Standardization ISO, ISOCentral Secretariat, BIBC II, Chemin de Blandonnet 8, CP 401, 1214 Vernier,Geneva, Switzerland, http//www.iso.org.5Available from European Committee for Standardization CEN, AvenueMarnix 17, B-1000, Brussels, Belgium, http//www.cen.eu.D6062 − 192Hygienists ACGIH 1. The definition of respirable aerosol isthe basis for recommended exposure levels REL of respirablecoal mine dust as promulgated by NIOSH Criteria for aRecommended Standard, Occupational Exposure to RespirableCoal Mine Dust 15. The respirable aerosol definition alsos the basis of the NIOSH sampling for respirableparticulates not otherwise regulated NIOSH Manual of Ana-lytical s 16.4.2 The convention can be used for those who are preparingto uate a workplace environment by collecting samples ofaerosolized particles, or who wish to obtain an understandingof what ination can be obtained by such sampling. Theconvention to be used is not always straightforward, butgenerally depends on what part of the respiratory system isaffected by the aerosol particles. The conventions are oftenapplied for approximating mass fractions, but they may also beused in the uation of total surface area or the number ofparticles in the collected material.4.3 The conventions constitute a part of the perancecharacteristics required of aerosol samplers for collectingaerosol according to the relevant health effects. This guidetherefore does not specify particular samplers for measuringthe aerosol fractions defined here. Detailed guidelines foruating any given sampler relative to the conventions areavailable CEN EN 13205, six parts. Several advantages overinstrument specification can be attributed to the adoption ofthese perance-associated conventions4.3.1 The conventions have a recognized relationship tohealth effects.4.3.2 Perance criteria permit instrument designers toseek practical sampler improvements.4.3.3 Perance criteria promote continued experimentaltesting of the samplers in use with the result that the significantvariables such as wind speed, particle charge, and so forthaffecting sampler operation become understood.5. Precision and Bias5.1 Precision and bias are detailed in specific test sfor example, Test D4532, CEN EN 13205.Furthermore, how these quantities are to be measured will bepresented in a perance uation protocol to appear as aseparate standard. Nevertheless, general comments are inorder.5.1.1 PrecisionIn the sampling of aerosol, several com-ponents of precision have been found significant 5. Theseinclude inter-sampler variability, caused by physical variationsin the samplers; intra-sampler variability, from inaccuracy inthe setting and maintenance of required airflow; and analyticalerror, for example, in the weighing of filters.5.1.2 BiasAs no real sampler follows the aerosol fractionconventions exactly, bias always exists between true andconventional ideal samplers. This bias depends on the par-ticle size distribution of the aerosol sampled. The worst-casesituation is in the sampling of monodisperse aerosol. However,in most workplaces, aerosol is present in a broad distribution ofsizes. The cancellation of positive and negative components ofbias at different particle sizes reduces the overall bias in thiscase.6. Keywords6.1 aerosol; conventions; deposition; fractions; inhalable;particle; particulates; penetration; respirable; sampling effi-ciency; size-selective; thoracicFIG. 1 Inhalable, Thoracic, and Respirable Conventions Relative to Total Airborne ParticlesD6062 − 193APPENDIXNonmandatory InationX1. ALGORITHM FOR CUMULATIVE NORMAL FUNCTIONX1.1 The cumulative normal function Φ[x] is easily ap-proximated on a calculator or small computer using thefollowing algorithm 14Φx 5 1 2 Zx a1t1a2t21a3t3 X1.1where t is given in terms of x as followst 5 1/11px, and X1.2where the function Z[x] is defined as followsZx[12πexp2x2/2, and X1.3where the constants p, a1, a2, and a3are given as followsa1, a2, a3 5 0.4361836,20.1201676, 0.937298 X1.4p 5 0.33267 X1.5REFERENCES1 ACGIH 1994–1995Threshold Limit Values, American Conference ofGovernmental Industrial Hygienists, updated annually.2 Soderholm, S. C., “Proposed International Conventions for ParticleSize-Selective Sampling,” Annals Occupational Hygiene, Vol 33,1989, pp. 301–320; Vol 35, pp. 357–358.3 ACGIH, “Particle Size-Selective Sampling in the Workplace,” Annalsof the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists,VolII, 1984, pp. 21–100.4 British Medical Research Council, “Recommendations of the MRCPanels Relating to Selective Sampling,” Inhaled Particles andVapours, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1961.5 Bartley, D. L., Chen, C. C., Song, R., and Fischbach, T. J.,“ RespirableAerosol Sampler Perance Testing,” American Industrial HygieneAssociation Journal, Vol 55, 1994, pp. 1036–1046.6 Maynard, A., “Respirable Dust Sampler Characterisation EfficiencyCurve Reproducibility,” Proceedings of the European AerosolConference, Journal of Aer