Designation: D6062 − 19Standard Guide forPersonal Samplers of Health-Related Aerosol Fractions1This standard is issued under the fixed designation D6062; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This guide defines conventions for personal samplers ofspecific particle-size-dependent fractions of any given non-fibrous airborne aerosol. Such samplers are used for assessinghealth effects and in the setting of and testing for compliancewith permissible exposure limits in the workplace and ambientenvironment. The conventions have been adopted by theInternational Standards Organization (ISO 7708), the ComitéEuropéen de Normalisation (CEN EN 481), and the AmericanConference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)(1).2The conventions were developed (2) in part from health-effects studies reviewed (3) by the ACGIH and in part as acompromise between definitions proposed by the ACGIH (3)and by the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) (4).Conventions are given here for inhalable, thoracic, and respi-rable fractions.1.2 This guide is complementary to Test Method D4532,which describes the performance of respirable dust cyclonesand operational procedures for use. The procedures, specifi-cally the optimal flow rate, are still valid although the esti-mated accuracy differs somewhat from use with previousaerosol fraction definitions. Details on these instruments havebeen published (5-11).1.3 Limitations:1.3.1 The definitions given here were adopted by the agen-cies listed in 1.1 in part on the basis of expected health effectsof the different size fractions, but in part allowing for availablesampling equipment. The original adoption by CEN was, infact, for the eventual setting of common standards by the ECcountries while permitting the use of a variety of instrumenta-tion. Deviations of the sampling conventions from health-related effects are as follows:1.3.1.1 The inhalable fraction actually depends on the spe-cific air speed and direction, on the breathing rate, and onwhether breathing is by nose or mouth. The values given in theinhalable convention are for representative values of breathingrate and represent averages over all wind directions.1.3.1.2 The respirable and thoracic fractions vary fromindividual to individual and with the breathing pattern. Theconventions are approximations to the average case.1.3.1.3 Each convention applies strictly to a fraction pen-etrating to a region, rather than depositing. Therefore, samplescollected according to the conventions may only approximatecorrelations with biological effects. For example, the respirableconvention overestimates the fraction of very small particlesdeposited in the alveolar region of the respiratory systembecause some of the particles are actually exhaled withoutbeing deposited (12). In many workplaces, these very smallparticles contribute insignificantly to the sampled mass.Furthermore, the large variability between individuals and thedetails of clearance may be as important as this type of effect.1.3.1.4 The thoracic convention applies to mouth breathing,for which aerosol collection is greater than during nosebreathing.1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded asstandard. No other units of measurement are included in thisstandard.1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety, health, and environmental practices and deter-mine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.1.6 This international standard was developed in accor-dance with internationally recognized principles on standard-ization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recom-mendations issued by the World Trade Organization TechnicalBarriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:3D1356 Terminology Relating to Sampling and Analysis ofAtmospheres1This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D22 on Air Qualityand is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D22.04 on Workplace Air Quality.Current edition approved April 1, 2019. Published June 2019. Originallyapproved in 1996. Last previous edition approved in 2012 as D6062 – 07 (2012).DOI: 10.1520/D6062-19.2The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to a list of references at the end ofthis standard.3For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at

[email protected] For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United StatesThis international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.1D4532 Test Method for Respirable Dust in Workplace At-mospheres Using Cyclone Samplers2.2 International Standards:ISO 7708 Air Quality—Particle Size Fraction Definitions forHealth-Related Sampling, 19954CEN EN 481 Standard on Workplace Atmospheres. SizeFraction Definitions for the Measurement of AirborneParticles, 19935CEN EN 13205 Standards on Workplace Exposure. Assess-ment of Sampler Performance for Measurement of Air-borne Particle Concentration, 201453. Terminology3.1 Definitions:3.1.1 For terms that are not defined herein, refer to Termi-nology D1356.3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:3.2.1 aerodynamic diameter, D, (µm)—the diameter of asphere of density of 103kg/m3with the same settling velocityas a particle of interest.3.2.2 inhalable convention, EI—the target specification forsampling instruments when the inhalable fraction is the frac-tion of interest. D13563.2.2.1 Discussion—Specifically, EIis taken (ISO 7708,CEN EN 481, and the ACGIH threshold limit values (1))asfollows:EI5 0.50

[email protected] D#!, D,100 µm (1)defined in terms of aerodynamic diameter, D.3.2.2.2 Discussion—The inhalable convention EIis illus-trated in Fig. 1. Note that EI→ 0.50 (50 %) at large D. Eq 1approximates the inhalable fraction when averaged over allwind directions for windspeeds v 4 m/s. At higher windspeeds, the following convention has been tentatively sug-gested as follows (13):EI5 0.50

[email protected] D#

[email protected] D#, (2)4 m/s,v,9 m/s3.2.3 inhalable fraction—the total airborne particle massfraction inhaled through the nose and mouth, that is, whichenters the respiratory system. D13563.2.4 respirable convention, ER—the target sampling curvefor instruments approximating the respirable fraction. D13563.2.4.1 Discussion—ERis defined (ISO 7708, CEN EN 481,and the presentACGIH Threshold Limit Values (1)) in terms ofthe cumulative normal function (14) Φ as follows:ER5 EI·Φ@

[email protected]/D#/σR# (3)where the indicated constants are DR= 4.25 µm andσR= ln[1.5]. The cumulative normal function Φ is easilyapproximated using the algorithm given in Appendix X1.3.2.4.2 Discussion—For protecting the sick or infirm orchildren, a quantity DR= 2.5 µm has been suggested (ISO7708). This accounts for the fact that in children and in adultswith certain chest diseases, the tracheobronchial region is moreeffective at collecting particles of small aerodynamic diameterthan it is in healthy adults. The respirable convention ERisillustrated in Fig. 1. Note that 50 % of total airborne particleswith D = 4.0 µm are in the respirable fraction.3.2.5 respirable fraction—the mass fraction of total airborneparticles penetrating to the alveolar region of the respiratorysystem.3.2.6 sampling convention—a target specification that ap-proximates to a specific health-related fraction of aerosol ofgiven aerodynamic diameter. A sampling convention is speci-fied in terms of the sampling efficiency E, the fraction ofparticles at given aerodynamic diameter collected by an idealinstrument.3.2.7 thoracic convention, ET—the target sampling curve forinstruments approximating the thoracic fraction. ETis defined(ISO 7708, CEN EN 481, and the present ACGIH ThresholdLimit Values (1)) in terms of the cumulative normal function(14) Φ as:ET5 EI·Φ@

[email protected]/D#/σT# (4)where the indicated constant parameters are DT= 11.64µm and σT= ln[1.5].3.2.7.1 Discussion—The thoracic convention ETis illus-trated in Fig. 1. Note that 50 % of total airborne particles withD = 10 µm are in the thoracic fraction.3.2.8 thoracic fraction—the mass fraction of total airborneparticles penetrating beyond the larynx.3.3 Symbols and Abbreviations:3.3.1 D (µm)—aerosol aerodynamic diameter.3.3.2 DR(µm) —respirable sampling convention parameterequal to 4.25 µm in the case of healthy adults, or 2.5 µm for thesick or infirm or children.3.3.3 DT(µm) —thoracic sampling convention parameterequal to 11.64 µm.3.3.4 E—sampling convention in general.3.3.5 EI—inhalable sampling convention.3.3.6 ER—respirable sampling convention.3.3.7 ET—thoracic sampling convention.3.3.8 v (m/s)—wind speed.3.3.9 σR—respirable sampling convention parameter equalto ln[1.5].3.3.10 σT—thoracic sampling convention parameter equal toln[1.5].3.3.11 Φ[x]—cumulative normal function defined, givenargument x.4. Significance and Use4.1 This guide is intended to provide the conventionsadopted by the International Standards Organization (ISO7708), the Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN EN 481),and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial4Available from International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISOCentral Secretariat, BIBC II, Chemin de Blandonnet 8, CP 401, 1214 Vernier,Geneva, Switzerland, http://www.iso.org.5Available from European Committee for Standardization (CEN), AvenueMarnix 17, B-1000, Brussels, Belgium, http://www.cen.eu.D6062 − 192Hygienists (ACGIH) (1). The definition of respirable aerosol isthe basis for recommended exposure levels (REL) of respirablecoal mine dust as promulgated by NIOSH (Criteria for aRecommended Standard, Occupational Exposure to RespirableCoal Mine Dust (15)). The respirable aerosol definition alsoforms the basis of the NIOSH sampling method for respirableparticulates not otherwise regulated (NIOSH Manual of Ana-lytical Methods (16)).4.2 The convention can be used for those who are preparingto evaluate a workplace environment by collecting samples ofaerosolized particles, or who wish to obtain an understandingof what information can be obtained by such sampling. Theconvention to be used is not always straightforward, butgenerally depends on what part of the respiratory system isaffected by the aerosol particles. The conventions are oftenapplied for approximating mass fractions, but they may also beused in the evaluation of total surface area or the number ofparticles in the collected material.4.3 The conventions constitute a part of the performancecharacteristics required of aerosol samplers for collectingaerosol according to the relevant health effects. This guidetherefore does not specify particular samplers for measuringthe aerosol fractions defined here. Detailed guidelines forevaluating any given sampler relative to the conventions areavailable (CEN EN 13205, six parts). Several advantages overinstrument specification can be attributed to the adoption ofthese performance-associated conventions:4.3.1 The conventions have a recognized relationship tohealth effects.4.3.2 Performance criteria permit instrument designers toseek practical sampler improvements.4.3.3 Performance criteria promote continued experimentaltesting of the samplers in use with the result that the significantvariables (such as wind speed, particle charge, and so forth)affecting sampler operation become understood.5. Precision and Bias5.1 Precision and bias are detailed in specific test methods(for example, Test Method D4532, CEN EN 13205).Furthermore, how these quantities are to be measured will bepresented in a performance evaluation protocol to appear as aseparate standard. Nevertheless, general comments are inorder.5.1.1 Precision—In the sampling of aerosol, several com-ponents of precision have been found significant (5). Theseinclude inter-sampler variability, caused by physical variationsin the samplers; intra-sampler variability, from inaccuracy inthe setting and maintenance of required airflow; and analyticalerror, for example, in the weighing of filters.5.1.2 Bias—As no real sampler follows the aerosol fractionconventions exactly, bias always exists between true andconventional (ideal) samplers. This bias depends on the par-ticle size distribution of the aerosol sampled. The worst-casesituation is in the sampling of monodisperse aerosol. However,in most workplaces, aerosol is present in a broad distribution ofsizes. The cancellation of positive and negative components ofbias at different particle sizes reduces the overall bias in thiscase.6. Keywords6.1 aerosol; conventions; deposition; fractions; inhalable;particle; particulates; penetration; respirable; sampling effi-ciency; size-selective; thoracicFIG. 1 Inhalable, Thoracic, and Respirable Conventions Relative to Total Airborne ParticlesD6062 − 193APPENDIX(Nonmandatory Information)X1. ALGORITHM FOR CUMULATIVE NORMAL FUNCTIONX1.1 The cumulative normal function Φ[x] is easily ap-proximated on a calculator or small computer using thefollowing algorithm (14):Φ@x# 5 1 2

[email protected]# ~a1t1a2t21a3t3! (X1.1)where t is given in terms of x as follows:t 5 1/~11px!, and (X1.2)where the function Z[x] is defined as follows:

[email protected]#[1=2π

[email protected]/2#, and (X1.3)where the constants p, a1, a2, and a3are given as follows:~a1, a2, a3! 5 ~0.4361836,20.1201676, 0.937298! (X1.4)p 5 0.33267 (X1.5)REFERENCES(1) ACGIH: 1994–1995Threshold Limit Values, American Conference ofGovernmental Industrial Hygienists, updated annually.(2) Soderholm, S. C., “Proposed International Conventions for ParticleSize-Selective Sampling,” Annals Occupational Hygiene, Vol 33,1989, pp. 301–320; Vol 35, pp. 357–358.(3) ACGIH, “Particle Size-Selective Sampling in the Workplace,” Annalsof the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists,VolII, 1984, pp. 21–100.(4) British Medical Research Council, “Recommendations of the MRCPanels Relating to Selective Sampling,” Inhaled Particles andVapours, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1961.(5) Bartley, D. L., Chen, C. C., Song, R., and Fischbach, T. J.,“ RespirableAerosol Sampler Performance Testing,” American Industrial HygieneAssociation Journal, Vol 55, 1994, pp. 1036–1046.(6) Maynard, A., “Respirable Dust Sampler Characterisation: EfficiencyCurve Reproducibility,” Proceedings of the European AerosolConference, Journal of Aer