Designation: C1603 − 16Standard Test Method forMeasurement of Solids in Water1This standard is issued under the fixed designation C1603; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope*1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the solidscontent in water for use as mixing water in ready-mixedconcrete and the measurement of its density. Solids content isexpressed in terms of parts per million (ppm) or in terms ofpercent by mass of the water sample.1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded asstandard; inch-pound units are shown in parenthesis for infor-mation only.1.3 The text of this standard references notes and footnotesthat provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes(excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be consideredas requirements of the standard.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and to determine theapplicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:2C188 Test Method for Density of Hydraulic CementC670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statementsfor Test Methods for Construction MaterialsC1602/C1602M Specification for Mixing Water Used in theProduction of Hydraulic Cement Concrete3. Significance and Use3.1 This test method is used to determine the solids contentof mixing water used to produce concrete when one or more ofthe water sources is wash water from concrete productionoperations or water that contains solids when batched asmixing water in concrete.3.2 The test method provides a means to determine therelationship between the density and solids content of water forcompliance with solids content limits of mixing water such asin Specification C1602/C1602M.3.3 During production of concrete, the water property mea-sured is its density, which can then be used to estimate thesolids content from procedures described in this test method.3.4 To develop a correlation between the density and solidscontent of water, water samples should be tested that cover therange of solids concentrations anticipated during production.4. Apparatus4.1 Density Measure: A cylindrical container (Note 1) witha volume of 200 6 25 mL (7 6 1 fl. oz.) with a glass or hardplastic plate that is placed over it. The glass or plastic plateshall be at least 6 mm (1⁄4 in.) thick and 40 mm (11⁄2-in.) largerthan the outer diameter of the measure. The top of the densitymeasure shall be flat such that it does not leak when the plateis placed over it.NOTE 1—Acommonly available smaller size mason jar with top groundsmooth is acceptable.4.2 The volume of the density measure shall be determinedto nearest 0.1 mL in accordance with procedures used forcalibrating air or density measures, as in Test Method C670.4.3 A microwave oven with at least 900 W of powercapacity.4.4 Amicrowave-safe glass dish large enough to contain thewater sample and fiberglass cloth (See Note 2).NOTE 2—A450 × 450 × 25 mm (9×9×1in.) dish is acceptable.Fiberglass cloth commonly used with fiberglass resin for boat or auto bodyrepair is found in most hardware stores.4.5 A balance or scale with a minimum capacity of 2000 gaccurate to 0.1 g4.6 A rubber syringe5. Measurement of Density5.1 Obtain the mass of the empty density measure and plateto the nearest 0.1g.5.2 If the water contains solids in suspension, ensure that thewater is sampled while the water source is being agitated. Takea representative sample of water and fill the density measure to1This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 onConcrete and Concrete Aggregates and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeC09.40 on Ready-Mixed Concrete.Current edition approved Feb. 1, 2016. Published April 2016. Originallyapproved in 2004. Last previous edition approved in 2010 as C1603–10. DOI:10.1520/C1603-16.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at

[email protected] For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1overflowing. Slide the cover plate over the measure ensuringthat there are no air bubbles. Wipe the outside of the plate andmeasure dry and obtain the mass of the filled density measurecovered with the plate.5.3 Calculate the density of the water sample to 0.001 g/mLDW5MWV(1)Where:DW= Density of the water, g/mL,MW= Net mass of water in the density measure, g, andV = Volume of the density measure, mL.6. Measurement of Solids Content6.1 Obtain the mass of the empty dish and a piece of fiberglass cloth about 500 mm (20 in.) square to the nearest 0.1 g.6.2 For the water sample used in the density measurement,keep the glass plate over the density measure and shake thewater suspension. If the density of water is not determined,obtain at least 200 mL of a representative sample of water in acontainer and determine the mass of the water sample to thenearest 0.1 g. Pour the water sample into the glass dish. Usingthe rubber syringe, wash solids adhered in the measure into thedish using a minimum amount of water. Cover the water withthe fiberglass cloth to prevent loss of solids during drying.6.3 Place the dish in a microwave oven and heat it forapproximately 20 min or until the water has evaporated.Determine the mass of the dish and place it back in themicrowave oven for 2 min increments until the mass deter-mined in two subsequent determinations do not differ by morethan 0.5 g. At any step in the drying process, discontinueadditional drying if the net mass of water and solids in the dishis less than 0.5 g.6.4 Determine the mass of the dish and cloth with the driedsolids.6.5 Calculate the percent solids in terms of percent by massto the nearest 0.1 % and in ppm to the nearest 1000 ppm. If themeasured value is less than 500 ppm, record the value as zeroor the actual calculated value.SW,% 5MsMW3100 (2)Sppm5 SW310000 (3)Where:Ms= Mass of dry solids,MW= Mass of water with solids,SW= Solids content in water, in percent, andSppm= Solids content in water, in ppm.6.6 Repeat these measurements for water with differentsolids content. Test water at 4 or more different levels of solidscontent.7. Relationship Between Density and Solids Content7.1 Establish a relationship using linear regression analysis(See Note 3) between the measured density and solids contentof water sample measurements for a range of solid concentra-tions that cover the anticipated range in the production facility.NOTE 3—The linear regression analysis can be performed usingspreadsheet software.7.1.1 Express the relationship between the density of thewater and the solids content as follows, such that the measureddensity on a particular production day can be used to determinethe solids content of the water.Sppm5 A1B 3DW(4)Where: A and B are regression constantsNOTE 4—Eq 4 provides an approximate linear relationship betweensolids content and measured density. The relationship between solidscontent and density is non-linear (see Eq 5) and Eq 4 should not be usedto estimate the solids content of water outside the range of values used toestablish the relationship in Eq 4.NOTE 5—During concrete production, a producer might choose tomonitor the density of a water source using a hydrometer. It is recom-mended that the density of the water using a hydrometer be determined onthe water at the time of this density measurement to obtain a relationship,if needed, or to calibrate the hydrometer. The water sample should beplaced in a transparent volumetric measuring flask. The hydrometermeasurement should be taken within 10 s after filling the water in theflask.This is to ensure that significant settlement of solids has not occurredbefore the measurement is taken as that will affect the measured density.7.2 When the relationship between density and solids con-tent is not determined by testing, calculate the solids content ofthe water in ppm from the measured density using thefollowing:Sppm5SDW2 1DS2 1D3DSDW31 000000 (5)where:DS= Density of solids in the water, g/mL7.2.1 To measure the density of solids, use at least 50 g ofthe dried solids and measure the density in accordance withTest Method C188.7.2.2 When the density of solids in the water is unknown, anassumed value of 2.6 g/mL is adequate (See Note 6). Deter-mine the solids content of the water in ppm from the measureddensity using the simplified form of Eq 5 as follows:Sppm5 1 625000 3S1 21DWD(6)NOTE 6—There are several conditions that will change the density ofsolids extracted from water from ready mixed concrete production withina relatively small range. For the purpose of establishing the relationshipbetween the density of water and the solids content, using an assumedvalue as indicated in 7.2.2 is adequate.NOTE 7—Guidance for blending two sources of water with differentsolids content is provided in Appendix X1.8. Report8.1 For the water samples tested to establish the relationshipof water density to solids content, maintain a record of thedensity of water to the nearest 0.001 g/mL; and the solidscontent of the same water sample in ppm to the nearest 1000ppm or percent by mass of water to the nearest 0.1 %. Ifmeasured value is less than 500 ppm, record zero or theobserved value. Include the dates of these tests and maintain arecord of the regression equation used to establish the relation-ship of water density to solids content.8.2 For tests of water samples during production of concreteor to calibrate automated measuring devices, maintain a recordC1603 − 162of water density tests to the nearest 0.001 g/mL or solidscontent to the nearest 1000 ppm. If measured value is less than500 ppm, record zero or the observed value. Include the dateand time of these tests. Record the calculated solids content ofthe tested water sample and the method (7.1 or 7.2) used todetermine the solids content.9. Precision and Bias9.1 Precision—The estimates of precision for this testmethod are based on results from tests on wash water sampleswith a range of solids content between 25 000 and 140 000ppm. Four operators tested the same water samples in triplicatefor the density and in duplicate for solids content.9.1.1 Single Operator Precision—The single-operator stan-dard deviation (1s) is shown in Table 1 by average density andsolids content; therefore, results of two properly conductedtests on the same sample by the same operator are not expectedto differ by more than the d2s values listed in Table 1.9.1.2 Multi-Operator Precision—The multi-operator stan-dard deviation (1s) is shown in Table 1 by average density andsolids content; therefore, results of two properly conductedtests on the same sample by two different operators are notexpected to differ by more than the d2s values listed in Table1.9.2 Bias—Since there is no accepted reference material fordetermining the bias of the results from this test method, nostatement on bias is made.10. Keywords10.1 concrete mixing water; density; recycled water; solidsAPPENDIX(Nonmandatory Information)X1. Determination of Blending Percentages of Combined WaterX1.1 Use the following relationships to determine the mix-ing percentage (Note X1.1) of each of two water sources to beblended to ensure that the added mixing water to concrete is ata target limit of solids content or the respective target density.X1.1.1 When the solids content of the two sources of wateris known and water is batched by mass or by volume, use EqX1.1:P15ST2 S2S12 S23100 (X1.1)X1.1.2 When the density of the two sources of water isknown, use Eq X1.2 when water is batched by mass and EqX1.3 when water is batched by volume:P15DT2 D2D12 D23D1DT3100 (X1.2)P15DT2 D2D12 D23100 (X1.3)Where:P1= Percentage of water from source 1 in theblended mixing water,STand DT= Target solids content in ppm and density ing/mL of the blended mixing water,S1and D1= Solids content in ppm and density in g/mL ofthe water from source 1, andS2and D2= Solids content in ppm and density in g/mL ofthe water from source 2.NOTE X1.1—The target solids content may be a limit established in aspecification or one that the quality control function of the ready mixedconcrete producer establishes. The solids content, typically dissolved, ofmunicipal water may be considered to be 0 ppm and the density may beconsidered to be 1.0 g/mL, to simplify this calculation.X1.2 When wash water from concrete production is used ata higher percentage of solids content, there will be necessarycorrections in the quantity of mixing water and the volume ofsolids to account for the solids content in the total mixingwater.TABLE 1 Table PrecisionStandardDeviation (1s)AAcceptable Range ofTwo Results (d2s)ASingle Operator PrecisionDensity, g/mL1.016 0.0005 0.00151.033 0.0010 0.00301.052 0.0017 0.00471.101 0.0014 0.0039Solids Content, ppm22,300 740 2,10046,600 970 2,70071,500 600 1,700134,500 2,300 6,300Multi-Operator PrecisionDensity, g/mL1.016 0.0009 0.00261.033 0.0018 0.00501.052 0.0025 0.00691.101 0.0020 0.0056Solids Content, ppm22,300 1,080 3,00046,600 1,110 3,10071,500 2,250 6,300134,500 2,530 7,100AThese numbers represent, respectively, the (1s) and (d2s) limits as described inPractice C670.C1603 − 163SUMMARY OF CHANGESCommittee C09 has identified the location of selected changes to this test method since the last issue,C1603–10, that may impact the use of this test method. 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