Designation: C1419 − 14Standard Test Method forSonic Velocity in Refractory Materials at Room Temperatureand Its Use in Obtaining an Approximate Young’s Modulus1This standard is issued under the fixed designation C1419; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This test method describes a procedure for measuringthe sonic velocity in refractory materials at room temperature.The sonic velocity can be used to obtain an approximate valuefor Young’s modulus.1.2 The sonic velocity may be measured through the length,thickness, and width of the specimen.1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded asstandard. No other units of measurement are included in thisstandard.1.4 This standard does not purport to address the safetyconcerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibilityof the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety andhealth practices and determine the applicability of regulatorylimitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:2C134 Test Methods for Size, Dimensional Measurements,and Bulk Density of Refractory Brick and InsulatingFirebrickC179 Test Method for Drying and Firing Linear Change ofRefractory Plastic and Ramming Mix SpecimensC769 Test Method for Sonic Velocity in ManufacturedCarbon and Graphite Materials for Use in ObtainingYoung’s ModulusC885 Test Method for Young’s Modulus of RefractoryShapes by Sonic ResonanceE177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias inASTM Test MethodsE691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study toDetermine the Precision of a Test MethodIEEE/ASTM SI10 American National Standard for Use ofthe International System of Units (SI): The Modern MetricSystem3. Terminology3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:3.1.1 longitudinal sonic pulse, n—a sonic pulse in which thedisplacements are in the direction of propagation of the pulse.3.1.2 pulse travel time, (Tt), n—the total time, measured inmicroseconds, required for the sonic pulse to traverse thespecimen being tested, and for the associated electronic signalsto traverse the circuits of the pulse propagation circuitry.3.1.3 zero time, (To), n—the travel time (correction factor),measured in microseconds, associated with the electroniccircuits in the pulse-propagation system.4. Summary of Test Method4.1 The velocity of sound waves passing through the testspecimen is determined by measuring the distance through thespecimen and dividing by the time lapse between the transmit-ted pulse and the received pulse.3,4An approximate value forYoung’s modulus can be obtained as follows:E 5 ρv2(1)where:E = Young’s modulus of elasticity, Pa,ρ = density, kg/m3, andv = signal velocity, m/s.4.2 Strictly speaking, the elastic constant given by thismeasurement is not E but C33, provided the sonic pulse islongitudinal and the direction of propagation is along the axisof symmetry.3,45. Significance and Use5.1 This test method is used to determine the sonic velocityand approximate Young’s modulus of refractory shapes at1This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C08 onRefractories and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C08.01 on Strength.Current edition approved Sept. 1, 2014. Published October 2014. Originallyapproved in 1999. Last previous edition approved in 2009 as C1419 – 99a (2009).DOI: 10.1520/C1419-14.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at

[email protected] For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3Schreiber, Anderson, and Soga, Elastic Constants and Their Measurement,McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1221Avenue of theAmericas, NewYork, NY10020, 1973.4American Institute of Physics Handbook, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1221Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, 1972, pp. 3–98ff.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1room temperature. Since this test is nondestructive, specimensmay be used for other tests as desired.5.2 This test method is useful for research and development,engineering application and design, manufacturing quality andprocess control, and for developing purchasing specifications.6. Apparatus6.1 Driving Circuit, which consists of an ultra sonic pulsegenerator capable of producing pulses in a frequency rangefrom 0.5 to 2.5 MHz.6.2 Transducer, input.6.3 Transducer, output.6.4 Oscilloscope, dual trace with a preamplifier and timedelay circuity.6.5 See Fig. 1 for a typical set-up.7. Test Specimen7.1 Specimens may be prisms of any desired length withparallel smooth surfaces. Opposite surfaces across the length,width, and thickness shall be parallel. The smallest dimensionshall be greater than 5 times the diameter of the largestaggregate in the refractory. The surface on which the transduc-ers will be located must have a width of at least 1.5 times thediameter of the transducer being used.7.2 Dry the specimens in an oven at 110°C for a minimumof 5 h. Cool to room temperature. Test for sonic velocity within5 h of drying.7.3 Measurement of Density and Dimensions—Calculate thedensity of the specimens by Test Methods C134 and determinethe specimen lengths by either Test Methods C134 or C179.8. Procedure8.1 Assemble and connect the apparatus as shown in Fig. 1and refer to the equipment manufacturer’s instructions for hookup precautions. If using commercially available equipmentdesigned to measure sonic velocity, refer to the manufacturer’sset-up and operating instructions. Allow adequate time for thetest apparatus to warm up and stabilize.8.2 Provide a suitable coupling medium on the transducerfaces.NOTE 1—Petroleum jelly or grease couple well but may be difficult toremove for subsequent tests on the same specimen.8.3 Bring the transducer faces into intimate contact, but donot exceed the manufacturer’s recommended contact pressure.8.4 Determine To, the zero time (zero correction) measuredin microseconds, associated with the electronic circuits in thepulse propagation instrument and coupling. Alternately, if acommercially available apparatus is used, which utilizes a zerooffset and a supplied calibration standard, the instrument canbe zeroed using the standard and Todoes not have to bedetermined or used in the final calculation.8.5 Measure and weigh and calculate the density of the testspecimen as in 7.3.8.6 Lightly coat the faces of the test specimen that will be incontact with the transducers with the coupling medium. Posi-tion the transducers on opposite surfaces so that they provide amirror image and that the distance between the input transducerand the output transducer is equal to the dimension throughwhich the measurement is performed. Place the transducersagainst the test specimen. Apply firm pressure until the pulsetravel time stabilizes.8.7 Determine Tt, the pulse travel time from the oscilloscopetraces as illustrated in Fig. 2, or, if the instrument used has azero correction, Tc, the corrected travel time.9. Calculation9.1 Velocity of Signal:v 5LTt2 To(2)orv 5LTc(3)FIG. 1 Equipment Set-upC1419 − 142where:v = velocity of signal, m/s,L = distance between the two transducers, the dimensionthrough which the measurement is performed, m,Tt= pulse travel time, s,To= zero times, s, andTc= corrected travel time (Tt−To), s.9.2 An appropriate value for Young’s modulus of thespecimen can be obtained using the following equation:E 5 ρv2(4)where:E = Young’s modulus of elasticity, Pa (approximate),ρ = density, kg/m3, andv = signal velocity, m/s.9.3 Conversion Factors—See IEEE/ASTM SI10.10. Report10.1 Report the following information:10.1.1 Specimen dimensions and weight.10.1.2 Sonic velocity for each specimen.10.1.3 Density for each specimen, if calculated.10.1.4 Young’s modulus for each specimen, if calculated.10.1.5 It is recommended that the average and standarddeviation values be included for each group of specimens.10.1.6 Frequency of the transducers used and sonic velocityequipment identification.10.1.7 Method of coupling the transducers to the specimen.10.1.8 As available a complete identification of the materialbeing tested including manufacturer, brand, lot number, firinghistory, and specimen sampling plan.11. Precision and Bias11.1 Interlaboratory Test Data—An interlaboratory studywas completed among nine laboratories in 1996.Astandard setof samples consisting of five different refractory materials anda Plexiglas prism were circulated and tested by each labora-tory.5The samples tested were Plexiglas, two high aluminabrick (SR-90 and SR-99), an alumina insulating brick (B-301),an isopressed alumina shape (A-1148), and a zircon brick(ZRX). The dimensions of all samples were approximately 228mm × 114 mm × 75 mm. Each laboratory measured andweighed each sample and tested each for signal travel time.Each time was the average of three test determinations.11.2 Precision—Tables 1 and 2 contain the precision statis-tics for the sonic velocity and approximate Young’s modulusresults, respectively. The terms repeatability limit and repro-ducibility limit are used as specified in Practice E177.11.3 Bias—No justifiable statement can be made on the biasof the test method for measuring the sonic velocity andapproximate Young’s modulus of refractories because thevalue of the sonic velocity and approximate Young’s moduluscan be defined only in terms of the test method.12. Keywords12.1 modulus of elasticity; refractories; sonic velocity;Young’s modulus5Since these samples were not destroyed in testing, they are being retained incustody by C08.01 for future reference and test development.FIG. 2 Typical Oscilloscope DisplayTABLE 1 Precision Statistics for Sonic VelocityMaterialAverage(m/s)Std. Dev.WithinLabs, SrStd. Dev.BetweenLabs, SRRepeatabilityLimit, rReproducibilityLimit, RPlexiglas 2731.3 1.19 28.97 3.37 81.93A-1148 9223.3 18.29 182.59 51.73 516.36B-301 2511.6 6.96 43.49 19.68 122.98SR-90 3911 19.5 81.26 55.15 229.8SR-99 4697.5 9.35 81.12 26.45 229.44ZRX 5789.8 39.99 126.94 113.09 358.99TABLE 2 Precision Statistics for Approximate Young’s ModulusMaterialAverage(MPa)Std. Dev.WithinLabs, SrStd. Dev.BetweenLabs, SRRepeatabilityLimit, rReproducibilityLimit, RPlexiglas 8970 8.42 191 23.8 541A-1148 293000 1190 11500 3370 32600B-301 9380 52 317 147 896SR-90 43400 434 1590 1230 4500SR-99 67900 829 2180 2340 6170ZRX 90400 1270 4370 3590 12300C1419 − 143ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. 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