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ASTM A254 - A 254M - 12.pdf

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ASTM A254 - A 254M - 12.pdf

Designation A254/A254M − 12Standard Specification forCopper-Brazed Steel Tubing1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A254/A254M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers double-wall, copper-brazedsteel tubing suitable for general engineering uses, particularlyin the automotive, refrigeration, and stove industries for fuellines, brake lines, oil lines, heating and cooling units, and thelike. The tubing is available in either of two types, single stripor double strip as shown in Fig. 1.1.2 UnitsThis specification is expressed in both inch-pounds units and in SI units; however, unless the purchaseorder or contract specifies the applicable M specificationdesignation SI units, the inch-pound units shall apply. Thevalues stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to beregarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units areshown in brackets. The values stated in each system may not beexact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used inde-pendently of the other. Combining values from the two systemsmay result in non-conformance with the standard. In thisspecification hard or rationalized conversions apply todiameters, lengths, and tensile properties. Soft conversionapplies to other SI measurements.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemi-cal Analysis of Steel ProductsE30 Test Methods for ChemicalAnalysis of Steel, Cast Iron,Open-Hearth Iron, and Wrought Iron Withdrawn 19953E59 Practice for Sampling Steel and Iron for Determinationof Chemical Composition Withdrawn 199632.2 Society of Automotive Engineers Standard4J 533 Flares for Tubing3. Ordering Information3.1 Orders for material under this specification shouldinclude the following, as required to describe the desiredmaterial adequately3.1.1 Quantity feet, metres or number of pieces,3.1.2 Name of material copper-brazed steel tubing,3.1.3 Type, single strip or double strip, where necessary seeFig. 1 normally the type is not specified,3.1.4 Size outside diameter and wall thickness; normallyinside diameter should not be specified,3.1.5 Length specific or random,3.1.6 Inside surface cleanliness where required see Section8,3.1.7 External coating, where required see Section 7 andSupplementary Requirement S2, and3.1.8 Special or supplementary requirements or exceptionsto specification.4. Manufacture4.1 The steel may be made by any commercially acceptedsteelmaking process.4.2 If a specific type of melting is required by the purchaser,it shall be as stated on the purchase order.4.3 The primary melting may incorporate separate degas-sing or refining and may be followed by secondary melting,such as electroslag remelting or vacuum-arc remelting. Ifsecondary melting is employed, the heat shall be defined as allof the ingots remelted from a single primary heat.4.4 Steel may be cast in ingots or may be strand cast. Whensteel of different grades is sequentially strand cast, identifica-tion of the resultant transition material is required. Theproducer shall remove the transition material by an establishedprocedure that positively separates the grades.4.5 The tubing shall be made by rolling steel strip into theform of tubing and subsequently copper brazing in a reducingatmosphere.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.09 on Carbon Steel Tubular Products.Current edition approved Nov. 1, 2012. Published December 2012. Originallyapproved in 1944. Last previous edition approved in 2007 as A254 – 972007.DOI 10.1520/A0254_A0254M-12.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced onwww.astm.org.4Available from SAE International SAE, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale,PA 15096-0001, http//www.sae.org.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;4.6 Tubing shall be constructed as shown in Fig. 1.4.7 Tubing shall be suitably tested after brazing by themanufacturer to ensure freedom from leaks and detrimentalflaws.5. Chemical Composition5.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements as tochemical composition prescribed in Table 1.5.2 HeatAnalysisAn analysis of each heat of steel shall bemade by the steel manufacturer to determine the percentages ofthe elements specified. If secondary melting processes areemployed, the heat analysis shall be obtained from oneremelted ingot or the product of one remelted ingot of eachprimary melt. The chemical composition thus determined, orthat determined from a product analysis made by the tubularproduct manufacturer shall conform to the requirements speci-fied.5.3 Product AnalysisTubing of this quality may be pro-duced in rimmed or capped steel which is characterized by alack of uniformity in its chemical composition. For this reason,rejection for product analysis is not appropriate unless misap-plication is clearly indicated.5.4 Methods of AnalysisMethods described in Test Meth-ods E30 shall be used for referee purposes. Due allowanceshall be made for the presence of copper brazing metal.5.5 Samples for Product AnalysisExcept for spectro-graphic analysis, samples shall be taken in accordance withPractice E59.6. Mechanical Requirements6.1 Tension TestTensile properties of tubing as manufac-tured prior to cold working shall conform to the requirementsspecified in Table 2.6.1.1 The specimens and tension tests required shall bemade in accordance with Test Methods and Definitions A370.6.1.2 Specimens shall be tested at room temperature.6.1.3 Test specimens shall be taken from the ends offinished tubes prior to upsetting, swaging, expanding, or otherforming operations, or being cut to length. They shall besmooth on the ends and free from burrs and flaws.6.1.4 If any test specimen shows flaws or defectivemachining, it may be discarded and another specimen substi-tuted.6.1.5 The yield strength shall be determined as that corre-sponding to a permanent offset of 0.2 of the gage length ofthe specimen, or a total extension of 0.5 of the gage lengthunder load.6.1.6 If the percentage of elongation of any test specimen isless than that specified and any part of the fracture is more than3⁄4 in. [19 mm] from the center of the gage length, as indicatedby scribe marks on the specimen before testing, a retest shall beallowed.6.2 Flattening TestA section of tubing, not less than 21⁄2in. [65 mm] in length, shall stand being flattened betweenparallel plates until the inside walls are in contact withoutcracking or otherwise showing flaws.6.3 Expansion TestAsection of tubing approximately 4 in.[100 mm] in length shall stand being expanded over a taperedmandrel having a slope of 1 in 10 until the outside diameter atthe expanded end is increased 20 without cracking orotherwise showing flaws. Prior to the expansion test, tubingshall be cut off square, edge crowned, and deburred. It shall beheld firmly and squarely in the die, and punch must be guidedon the axis of the tubing.6.4 Bend TestThe finished tubing shall stand bending on acenterline radius equal to three times the tubing outsidediameter without kinking, cracking, or developing other flawswhere proper bending fixtures are used.6.5 Pressure Proof TestsEach tube shall be capable ofwithstanding, without bursting or leaking, either of the follow-ing proof tests6.5.1 An internal hydrostatic pressure sufficient to subjectthe material to a minimum fiber stress of 16 000 psi [110MPa]. Hydrostatic pressure shall be determined by the follow-ing formulaP 5 2St/DwhereP hydrostatic pressure, psi [MPa],S allowable fiber stress, 16 000 psi [110 MPa],t actual wall thickness of tubing, in. [mm], andD actual outside diameter of tubing, in. [mm].6.5.2 An underwater air pressure between 225 and 250 psi[1.55 and 1.73 MPa].7. Coating7.1 Tubing may be furnished with a copper coating on theinside and outside surfaces, at the option of the manufacturer.8. Inside Surface Cleanliness8.1 When inside surface cleanliness is specified by thepurchaser, tubing for certain uses, such as refrigerationcondensers, shall conform to the following requirement forinternal cleanlinessFIG. 1 Brazed Tubing, Double-Wall, 360-deg Brazed ConstructionTABLE 1 Chemical RequirementsElement Composition, Carbon 0.05 to 0.15Manganese 0.27 to 0.63Phosphorus, max 0.035Sulfur, max 0.035TABLE 2 Tensile RequirementsProperty RequirementTensile strength, min, psi [MPa] 42 000 [290]Yield strength, min, psi [MPa] 25 000 [170]Elongation in 2 in. [50 mm] min, 25A254/A254M − 122Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;8.1.1 When a length of tubing is washed internally withredistilled chloroform or redistilled 1,1,1-trichloroethane, theresidue remaining upon evaporation of the solvent shall notexceed 1.25 10−4g/in.2[0.194 g/m2] of internal surface. Toperform the test, pour 100 mL of solvent through the tubingand collect. The total length of tubing tested should not be lessthan 40 ft [12 m], although this total length may be obtained bywashing several separate lengths and pouring the same solventthrough each in succession. Evaporate the solvent in a steam orhot water bath, and dry at 110C [230F] until the vapors arecompletely removed.8.2 To maintain this level of cleanliness in shipping,handling, and storage, the purchaser may request that themanufacturer seal the tube ends with caps or closures.9. Dimensional Tolerances9.1 The tubing shall conform to the permissible variations inTable 3, Table 4, and Table 5.10. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance10.1 Finished tubing shall be clean, smooth and round, bothinside and outside, and shall be free of rust, scale, and defectsthat impair processing and serviceability. Finished tubes shallbe reasonably straight.11. Retests11.1 If the results of the mechanical tests of any group or lotdo not conform to the requirements specified in the individualspecification, retests may be made on additional tubes ofdouble the original number from the same group or lot, each ofwhich shall conform to the requirements specified.12. Retreatment12.1 If the individual tubes or the tubes selected to representany group or lot fail to conform to the test requirements, theindividual tubes or the group or lot represented may beretreated and resubmitted for test. Not more than two reheattreatments shall be permitted.13. Inspection13.1 The inspector representing the purchaser shall haveentry at all times while work on the contract of the purchaseris being performed, to all parts of the manufacturer’s worksthat concern the manufacture of the material ordered. Themanufacturer shall afford the inspector all reasonable facilitiesto satisfy him that the material is being furnished in accordancewith this specification. All required tests and inspection shallbe made at the place of manufacture prior to shipment, unlessotherwise specified, and shall be conducted so as not tointerfere unnecessarily with the operation of the works.14. Rejection14.1 Each length of tubing received from the manufacturermay be inspected by the purchaser and, if it does not meet therequirements of the specification based on the inspection andtest method as outlined in the specification, the tubing may berejected and the manufacturer shall be notified. Disposition ofrejected tubing shall be a matter of agreement between themanufacturer and the purchaser.14.2 Material that fails in any of the forming operations orin the process of installation and is found to be defective shallbe set aside, and the manufacturer shall be notified for mutualevaluation of the material’s suitability. Disposition of suchmaterial shall be a matter for agreement.15. Certification15.1 When requested on the purchaser’s order, a test report,signed by an authorized employee or representative of themanufacturer, shall be furnished to the purchaser to indicate thespecification and year date and grade, the results of thechemical analysis, hardness, and tension tests, when specified,and other tests as may be specified in writing by the purchaser.16. Product Marking16.1 The specification number the marking need not in-clude the year date of the specification, the name or brand ofthe manufacturer and the size of tubing or the part number shallbe marked on a tag or label securely attached to the bundles orboxes in which the tubes are shipped.16.2 Bar CodingIn addition to the requirements in 16.1bar coding is acceptable as a supplemental identificationmethod. The purchaser may specify in the order a specific barcoding system to be used. In the absence of another bar codingsystem being specified in the purchase order, bar coding shouldbe consistent withAutomotive IndustryAction Group5[AIAG]standards.17. Keywords17.1 steel tube5Available from Automotive Industry Action Group AIAG 26200 Lahser Rd,Suite 200, Southfield, MI 48033, www.aiag.orgTABLE 3 Outside Diameter RequirementsSpecified Outside Diameter, in. [mm] Variations, in. [mm]Plus or MinusUnder3⁄16 [4.75] 0.002 [0.050]3⁄16 [4.75] through3⁄8 [9.5] 0.003 [0.075]7⁄16 [11.0] through5⁄8 [16.0] 0.004 [0.100]TABLE 4 Wall Thickness RequirementsSpecified Wall Thickness, in. [mm] Variations, in. [mm]Plus or Minus0.020 [0.50] through 0.030 [0.75] 0.003 [0.08]0.031 [0.80] through 0.049 [1.25] 0.0035 [0.09]TABLE 5 Length RequirementsSpecified Cut Length, in. [m] Variations, in. [mm]18 [0.45] and under 0.03 [0.75]Over 18 [0.45] through 40 [1.00] 0.06 [1.50]Over 40 [1.00] through 80 [2.00] 0.12 [3.00]Over 80 [2.05] through 120 [3.0] 0.25 [6.35]Over 120 [3.0] 1.00 [25.0], −0.0A254/A254M − 123Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTSOne or more of the following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified by thepurchaser in the inquiry, contract, or order. Details of these supplementary requirements shall beagreed upon by the manufacturer and the purchaser.S1. Flare TestS1.1 Brazed tubing shall stand being double flared todimensions shown in SAE Standard J 533, without splittingthrough the wall at the major diameter of the flare.Aseparationof the outer lap joint is permissible on the flared end of the tubeonly inArea A see Fig. S1.1

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