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ASTM A232 - A 232M - 05 (2011)e1.pdf

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ASTM A232 - A 232M - 05 (2011)e1.pdf

Designation A232/A232M − 05 Reapproved 20111Standard Specification forChromium-Vanadium Alloy Steel Valve Spring Quality Wire1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A232/A232M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1NOTEUnits were re-ordered editorially throughout in July 2011.1. Scope*1.1 This specification covers the highest quality of roundchromium-vanadium alloy steel valve spring wire, uniform inquality and temper, intended for the manufacture of valvesprings and other springs requiring high-fatigue propertieswhen used at moderately elevated temperatures. This wire shallbe either in the annealed and cold-drawn or oil-temperedcondition as specified by the purchaser.1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in non-conformancewith the standard.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Meth-ods for Steel Products for ShipmentA751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemi-cal Analysis of Steel ProductsE29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data toDetermine Conformance with Specifications2.2 ANSI Standard3B 32.4 Preferred Metric Sizes for Round, Square, Rectangle,and Hexagon Metal Products2.3 Federal Standard4Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipment Civil Agencies2.4 Military Standard4MIL-STD-163 Steel Mill Products, Preparation for Ship-ment and Storage2.5 AIAG Standard5AIAG B-5 02.00 Primary Metals Identification TagApplica-tion Standard3. Ordering Information3.1 Orders for material under this specification shouldinclude the following information for each ordered item3.1.1 Quantity mass,3.1.2 Name of material chromium-vanadium alloy steelvalve spring quality wire,3.1.3 Dimensions Table 1 and Section 8,3.1.4 Condition Section 6,3.1.5 Packaging Section 14,3.1.6 Heat analysis report, if requested 5.2,3.1.7 Certification or test report, or both, if specified Sec-tion 13, and3.1.8 ASTM designation and year of issue.NOTE 1A typical ordering description is as follows For inch-poundunits, 40 000 lb oil-tempered chromium-vanadium alloy steel valve springquality wire, size 0.250 in. in 350-lb coils to ASTM A232/A232M dated______; or for SI units, 20 000 kg oil-tempered chromium-vanadium alloysteel valve spring quality wire, size 6.00 mm in 150 kg coils to ASTMA232/A232M dated _______.4. Materials and Manufacture4.1 The steel may be made by any commercially acceptedsteel making process. The steel shall be continuously cast.4.2 The finished wire shall be free from detrimental pipeand undue segregation.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.03 on Steel Rod and Wire.Current edition approved July 1, 2011. Published July 2011. Originally approvedin 1939. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as A232/A232M – 05. DOI10.1520/A0232_A0232M-05R11E01.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3Available from American National Standards Institute ANSI, 25 W. 43rd St.,4th Floor, New York, NY 10036.4Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4,Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098.5Available from Automotive Industry Action Group AIAG, 26200 Lahser Rd.,Suite 200, Southfield, MI 48034.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;5. Chemical Composition5.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements for chemicalcomposition specified in Table 2.5.2 Heat AnalysisEach heat of steel shall be analyzed bythe manufacturer to determine the percentage of elementsprescribed in Table 2. This analysis shall be made from a testspecimen preferably taken during the pouring of the heat.When requested, this shall be reported to the purchaser andshall conform to the requirements of Table 2.5.3 Product AnalysisAn analysis may be made by thepurchaser from finished wire representing each heat of steel.The average of all the separate determinations made shall bewithin the limits specified in the analysis column. Individualdeterminations may vary to the extent shown in the productanalysis tolerance column, except that the several determina-tions of a single element in any one heat shall not vary bothabove and below the specified range.5.4 For referee purposes, Test Methods, Practices, andTerminology A751 shall be used.6. Mechanical Properties6.1 Annealed and Cold-DrawnWhen purchased in theannealed and cold-drawn condition, the wire shall have beengiven a sufficient amount of cold working to meet the purchas-er’s coiling requirements and shall be in a suitable condition torespond properly to heat treatment. In special cases thehardness, if desired, shall be stated in the purchase order.6.2 Oil TemperedWhen purchased in the oil-temperedcondition, the tensile strength and minimum percent reductionof area, sizes 0.105 in. [2.50 mm] and coarser, of the wire shallconform to the requirements prescribed in Table 1.6.2.1 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach five coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each heat in a givenlot shall be tested.6.2.2 Location of TestsTest specimens shall be taken fromeither end of the coil.6.2.3 Test MethodThe tension test shall be made inaccordance with Test Methods and Definitions A370.6.3 Wrap Test6.3.1 Oil-tempered or cold-drawn wire 0.162 in. [4.00 mm]and smaller in diameter shall wind on itself as an arbor withoutbreakage. Larger diameter wire up to and including 0.312 in.[8.00 mm] in diameter shall wrap without breakage on amandrel twice the wire diameter. The wrap test is not appli-cable to wire over 0.312 in. [8.00 mm] in diameter.6.3.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach five coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each heat in a givenlot shall be tested.6.3.3 Location of TestTest specimens shall be taken fromeither end of the coil.6.3.4 Test MethodThe wrap test shall be made in accor-dance with Test Methods and Definitions A370.TABLE 1 Tensile RequirementsASI UnitsDiameter,Bmm MPa, min MPa, maxReductionof Area,min, 0.50 2060 2260C0.55 2050 2240C0.60 2030 2220C0.65 2010 2200C0.70 2000 2160C0.80 1980 2140C0.90 1960 2120C1.00 1940 2100C1.10 1920 2080C1.20 1900 2060C1.40 1860 2020C1.60 1820 1980C1.80 1800 1960C2.00 1780 1930C2.20 1750 1900C2.50 1720 1860 452.80 1680 1830 453.00 1660 1800 453.50 1620 1760 454.00 1580 1720 404.50 1560 1680 405.00 1520 1640 405.50 1480 1620 406.00 1460 1600 406.50 1440 1580 407.00 1420 1560 408.00 1400 1540 409.00 1380 1520 4010.00 1360 1500 4011.00 1340 1480 4012.00 1320 1460 40Inch-Pound UnitsDiameter, in. ksi, min ksi, maxReductionof Area,min, 0.020 300 325C0.032 290 315C0.041 280 305C0.054 270 295C0.062 265 290C0.080 255 275C0.105 245 265 450.135 235 255 450.162 225 245 400.192 220 240 400.244 210 230 400.283 205 225 400.312 203 223 400.375 200 220 400.438 195 215 400.500 190 210 40ATensile strength values for intermediate diameters may be interpolated.BPreferred sizes. For a complete list, refer to ANSI B32.4.CThe reduction of area test is not applicable to wire diameters under 0.092 in.[2.34 mm].TABLE 2 Chemical RequirementsAnalysis, ProductAnalysisTolerance, Carbon 0.48–0.53 0.02Manganese 0.70–0.90 0.03Phosphorus 0.020 max 0.005Sulfur 0.035 max 0.005Silicon 0.15–0.35 0.02Chromium 0.80–1.10 0.05Vanadium 0.15 min −0.01A232/A232M − 05 201112Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;6.4 Special Surface InspectionWhen specified, the entirelength of every coil shall be inspected for surface imperfectionswith a magnetic or eddy current defect analyzer, or both, orequivalent. The defect depth of this surface inspection shall beagreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser. Alldetected defects shall be properly marked so the purchaser hasthe ability to identify and discard that length of wire.7. Metallurgical Requirements7.1 Surface Condition7.1.1 The surface of the wire as received shall be free ofimperfections such as pits, die marks, scratches, seams, andother defects tending to impair the fatigue value of the springs.7.1.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be takenfrom each end of every coil.7.1.3 Test MethodThe surface shall be examined afteretching in a solution of equal parts of hydrochloric acid andwater that has been heated to approximately 80C for up to 2min in order to remove the oxide scale layer from the wiresurface. Test ends shall be examined using 10 magnification.7.2 Decarburization7.2.1 Transverse sections of the wire properly mounted,polished, and etched shall show no completely decarburizedcarbon-free areas when examined at 100 magnification.Partial decarburization shall not exceed a depth of 0.001 in.[0.025 mm] on wire 0.192 in. [5.00 mm] and smaller or 0.0015in. [0.038 mm] on larger than 0.192 in. [5.00 mm]. Measure theworst area present excluding decarburization associated withseams or other surface imperfections. Complete decarburiza-tion exists when only free ferrite is present. Partial decarbur-ization exists when ferrite is found mixed with pearlite ortempered martensite. Structures of 100 tempered martensiteshall be defined as not decarburized.7.2.2 To reveal the decarburization more accurately in theuntempered wire, the specimen shall be hardened and temperedbefore microscopical examination. Prior to hardening, thespecimen shall be filed flat on one side enough to reduce thediameter at least 20 . The subsequent mounted specimenshall show the flattened section, as well as the original wireedge. Any decarburization on this flattened section shallnecessitate a new specimen for examination.7.2.3 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach five coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each in a given lotshall be tested.7.2.4 Location of TestsTest specimens may be taken fromeither end of the coil.7.3 MicrostructureAlongitudinal section shall show a finehomogeneous tempered martensitic structure.8. Dimensions and Permissible Variations8.1 The permissible variations in the diameter of the wireshall be as specified in Table 3.8.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken fromeach end of every coil.9. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance9.1 Annealed and Cold DrawnThe wire shall not bekinked or improperly cast. To test for cast, a few convolutionsof wire shall be cut loose from the coil and placed on a flatsurface. The wire shall lie substantially flat on itself and notspring up nor show a wavy condition.9.2 Oil TemperedThe wire shall be uniform in quality andtemper and shall not be wavy or crooked.9.3 Each coil shall be one continuous length of wireproperly coiled and firmly tied.9.4 No welds are permitted in the finished product and anywelds made during processing must be removed.10. Retests10.1 If any test specimen exhibits obvious defects it may bediscarded and another specimen substituted.11. Inspection11.1 Unless otherwise specified in the contract or purchaseorder, the manufacturer is responsible for the performance ofall inspection and test requirements specified in this specifica-tion. Except as otherwise specified in the contract or purchaseorder, the manufacturer may use his own or any other suitablefacilities for the performance of the inspection and testrequirements unless disapproved by the purchaser at the timethe order is placed. The purchaser shall have the right toperform any of the inspections and tests set forth in thisspecification when such inspections and tests are deemednecessary to assure that the material conforms to prescribedrequirements.12. Rejection and Rehearing12.1 Unless otherwise specified, any rejection based on testsmade in accordance with these specifications shall be reportedto the manufacturer as soon as possible so that an investigationmay be initiated.TABLE 3 Permissible Variations in Wire DiameterASI UnitsDiameter, mmPermissibleVariations,plus andminus, mmPermissibleOut-of-Round,mmto 2.0, incl 0.02 0.02Over 2.0 to 4.00, incl 0.03 0.03Over 4.00 to 9.00, incl 0.04 0.04Over 9.00 0.05 0.05Inch-Pound UnitsPermissible PermissibleDiameter, in. Variations, Out-of-Round,plus and in.minus, in.0.020 to 0.075, incl 0.0008 0.0008Over 0.075 to 0.148, incl 0.001 0.001Over 0.148 to 0.375, incl 0.0015 0.0015Over 0.375 to 0.500, incl 0.002 0.002AFor purposes of determining conformance with this specification, all specifiedlimits are absolute as defined in Practice E29.A232/A232M − 05 201113Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;12.2 The material must be adequately protected and cor-rectly identified in order that the manufacturer may make aproper investigation.13. Certification13.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, amanufacturer’s or supplier’s certification shall be furnished tothe purchaser that the material was manufactured, sampled,tested, and inspected in accordance with this specification andhas been found to meet the requirements. When specified in thepurchase order or contract, a report of the test results shall befurnished.13.2 The certification shall include the specification num-ber, year date of issue, and revision letter, if any.14. Packaging, Marking, and Loading for Shipment14.1 The coil mass, dimensions, and the method of packag-ing shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer andpurchaser.14.2 The size of the wire, purchaser’s order number, ASTMspecification number, heat number, and name or mark of themanufacturer shall be marked on a tag securely attached toeach coil of wire.14.3 Unless otherwise specified in the purchaser’s order,packaging, marking, and loading for shipments shall be inaccordance with those procedures recommended by PracticesA700.14.4 For Government ProcurementPackaging, packing,and marking of material for military procurement shall be inaccordance with the requirements of MIL-STD-163, Level A,Level C, or commercial as specified in the contract or purchaseorder. Marking for shipment of material for civil agencies shallbe in accordance with Fed. Std. No. 123.14.5 Bar CodingIn addition to

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