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ASTM A231 - A 231M - 15.pdf

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ASTM A231 - A 231M - 15.pdf

Designation A231/A231M − 15Standard Specification forChromium-Vanadium Alloy Steel Spring Wire1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A231/A231M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.1. Scope*1.1 This specification covers round and shaped chromium-vanadium alloy steel spring wire having properties and qualityintended for the manufacture of springs used at moderatelyelevated temperatures. This wire shall be either in the annealedand cold-drawn or oil-tempered condition as specified by thepurchaser.1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in non-conformancewith the standard.1.2.1 Within the text, the inch-pound units are shown inbrackets.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA510/A510M Specification for General Requirements forWire Rods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon Steel, andAlloy SteelA700 Guide for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Methodsfor Steel Products for ShipmentA751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemi-cal Analysis of Steel ProductsE29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data toDetermine Conformance with Specifications3. Ordering Information3.1 It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to specifyall requirements that are necessary for material under thisspecification. Such requirements may include, but are notlimited to, the following3.1.1 Quantity mass,3.1.2 Name of material chromium-vanadium alloy steelwire,3.1.3 Wire diameter Table 1 and Section 8,3.1.4 Packaging Section 14,3.1.5 Heat analysis report if requested 5.2,3.1.6 Certification or test report, or both, if specified Sec-tion 13, and3.1.7 ASTM designation and date of issue.NOTE 1A typical ordering description is as follows 20 000 kgoil-tempered chromium-vanadium alloy steel wire, size 6.00 mm in150-kg coils to ASTM A231/A231M dated_______ , or for inch-poundunits, 40 000 lb oil-tempered chromium-vanadium alloy steel spring wire,size 0.250 in. in 350-lb coils to ASTM A231/A231M dated_______.4. Materials and Manufacture4.1 The steel may be made by any commercially acceptedsteel–making process. The steel may be either ingot cast orstrand cast.4.2 The finished wire shall be free from detrimental pipeand undue segregation.5. Chemical Composition5.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements of Grade6150 for chemical composition specified in Table 2.5.2 Heat AnalysisEach heat of steel shall be analyzed bythe manufacturer to determine the percentage of elementsprescribed in Table 2. This analysis shall be made from a testspecimen preferably taken during the pouring of the heat.When requested, this shall be reported to the purchaser andshall conform to the requirements of Table 2.5.3 Product AnalysisAn analysis may be made by thepurchaser from finished wire representing each heat of steel.The chemical composition thus determined, as to elementsrequired or restricted, shall conform to the product analysisrequirements specified in Table 4 of Specification A510/A510M.5.4 For referee purposes, Test Methods, Practices, andTerminology A751 shall be used.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.03 on Steel Rod and Wire.Current edition approved Nov. 1, 2015. Published November 2015. Originallyapproved in 1939. Last previous edition approved in 2010 as A231/A231M – 10.DOI 10.1520/A0231_A0231M-15.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States16. Mechanical Properties6.1 Annealed and Cold DrawnWhen purchased in theannealed and cold-drawn condition, the wire shall have beengiven a sufficient amount of cold working to meet the purchas-er’s coiling requirements and shall be in a suitable condition torespond properly to heat treatment. In special cases thehardness, or tensile strength, if desired, shall be stated in thepurchase order.6.2 Oil TemperedWhen purchased in the oil-temperedcondition, the tensile strength and minimum percent reductionof area, sizes 2.50 mm [0.105 in.] and coarser, of the wire shallconform to the requirements as shown in Table 1. Tensilestrength of shaped and flat rolled wires shall conform to thistable based on the conversion to equivalent round dimensions.Percent reduction of area is not applicable to shaped and flatrolled wires.NOTE 2Equivalent Round Definition The cross-sectional area ofnon-round wires converted to the round wire diameter.6.2.1 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach ten coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each heat in a givenlot shall be tested.6.2.2 Location of TestsTest specimens shall be taken fromeither end of the coil.6.2.3 Test MethodThe tension test shall be made inaccordance with Test Methods and Definitions A370.6.3 Wrap Test6.3.1 Oil tempered or cold drawn wire 4.00 mm [0.157 in.]and smaller in diameter shall wind on itself as an arbor withoutbreakage. Larger diameter wire up to and including 8.00 mm[0.315 in.] in diameter shall wrap without breakage on amandrel twice the wire diameter. The wrap test is not appli-cable to wire over 8.00 mm [0.315 in.] in diameter or to shapedor flat rolled wires.TABLE 1 Tensile RequirementsADiameter,BmmSI Units Reduction of Areas,min, MPa, min MPa, max0.50 2060 2260C0.55 2050 2240C0.60 2030 2220C0.65 2010 2200C0.70 2000 2160C0.80 1980 2140C0.90 1960 2120C1.00 1940 2100C1.10 1920 2080C1.20 1900 2060C1.40 1860 2020C1.60 1820 1980C1.80 1800 1960C2.00 1780 1930C2.20 1750 1900C2.50 1720 1860 452.80 1680 1830 453.00 1660 1800 453.50 1620 1760 454.00 1580 1720 404.50 1560 1680 405.00 1520 1640 405.50 1480 1620 406.00 1460 1600 406.50 1440 1580 407.00 1420 1560 408.00 1400 1540 409.00 1380 1520 4010.00 1360 1500 4011.00 1340 1480 4012.00 1320 1460 40Diameter,Bin. Inch-Pound Units Reduction of Area, minksi, min. ksi, max0.020 300 325C0.032 290 315C0.041 280 305C0.054 270 295C0.062 265 290C0.080 255 275C0.105 245 265 450.135 235 255 450.162 225 245 400.192 220 240 400.244 210 230 400.283 205 225 400.312 203 223 400.375 200 220 400.438 195 215 400.500 190 210 40ATensile strength values for intermediate diameters may be interpolated.BPreferred sizes. For a complete list, refer to ANSI B 32.4M.CThe reduction of area test is not applicable to wire diameters under 2.34 mm[0.092 in.] in diameter.TABLE 2 Chemical RequirementsElement Analysis, Carbon 0.48–0.53Manganese 0.70–0.90Phosphorus 0.035 maxSulfur 0.040 maxSilicon 0.15–0.35Chromium 0.80–1.10Vanadium 0.15 minA231/A231M − 1526.3.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach ten coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each heat in a givenlot shall be tested.6.3.3 Location of TestTest specimens shall be taken fromeither end of the coil.6.3.4 Test MethodThe wrap test shall be made in accor-dance with Supplement A4.7 of Test Methods and DefinitionsA370.7. Metallurgical Properties7.1 Surface Condition7.1.1 The surface of the wire as received shall be free ofseams, pits, die marks, scratches, and other surface imperfec-tions that are deeper than 3.5 of the wire diameter, or 0.25mm [0.010 in.], whichever is the smaller as measured on atransverse section. The wire shall be free of rust and excessivescale.7.1.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach ten coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each heat in a givenlot shall be tested.7.1.3 Location of TestTest specimens shall be taken fromeither or both ends of the coil.7.1.4 Test MethodThe surface shall be examined afteretching in a solution of equal parts of hydrochloric acid andwater that has been heated to approximately 80C for up to twominutes in order to remove the oxide scale layer from the wiresurface. Test ends shall be examined using 10 magnification.Any specimen showing the presence of a questionable surfaceimperfection shall have a transverse section taken from theunetched area, properly mounted and polished and examined tomeasure the depth of the imperfection.7.2 Decarburization7.2.1 The depth of complete decarburization free ferriteshall not exceed 0.75 of the equivalent round wire diameter.The total affected depth free ferrite plus partial decarburiza-tion shall not exceed 2 of the equivalent round wirediameter on all sizes of wire.7.2.2 Test MethodDecarburization shall be determined byetching a suitably polished transverse section of the wire withnital. The entire periphery to be examined shall be in a singleplane with no edge rounding.7.2.3 The entire periphery shall be examined at a magnifi-cation of no less than 100 for depth of free ferrite and totalaffected depth. Smaller wire diameters may require highermagnification. Measure the worst area present excluding de-carburization associated with any surface imperfections. Com-plete decarburization exists when only free ferrite is present.Partial decarburization exists when ferrite is found mixed withpearlite or tempered martensite, depending on the wire pro-cessing.7.2.4 Decarburization shall be checked on annealed wire bygiving a wire sample an austenitize, oil quench and temper heattreatment.Aflat shall be ground on the test sample prior to heattreatment. The flat shall have a minimum width equal to onehalf of the wire diameter. Any decarburization visible on thisground section shall necessitate a retest with new samples. Ifno decarburization is visible on the ground flat after heattreatment, evaluate the complete wire section in accordancewith 7.2.3.8. Dimensions and Permissible Variations8.1 The permissible variations in the diameter of the wireshall be as specified in Table 3.9. Workmanship and Appearance9.1 Annealed and Cold DrawnThe wire shall not bekinked or improperly cast. To test for cast, a few convolutionsof wire shall be cut loose from the coil and placed on a flatsurface. The wire shall lie flat on itself and not spring up norshow a wavy condition.9.2 Oil TemperedThe wire shall be uniform in quality andtemper and shall not be wavy or crooked.9.3 Each coil shall be one continuous length of wireproperly coiled. Welds made prior to cold drawing are permit-ted. If unmarked welds are unacceptable to the purchaser,special arrangements should be made with the manufacturer atthe time of the purchase.10. Retests10.1 If any test specimen exhibits obvious imperfections orshows the presence of a weld, it may be discarded and anotherspecimen substituted.11. Inspection11.1 Unless otherwise specified in the contract or purchaseorder, the manufacturer is responsible for the performance ofall inspection and test requirements specified in this specifica-tion. Except as otherwise specified in the contract or purchaseorder, the manufacturer may use his own or any other suitablefacilities for the performance of the inspection and testrequirements unless disapproved by the purchaser at the timethe order is placed. The purchaser shall have the right toperform any of the inspections and tests set forth in thisspecification when such inspections and tests are deemednecessary to assure that the material conforms to prescribedrequirements.TABLE 3 Permissible Variations in Wire DiameterASI UnitsDiameter, mmPermissibleVariations, mmPermissible Out-ofRound, mmTo 0.70, incl 0.02 0.02Over 0.70 to 2.00, incl 0.03 0.03Over 2.00 to 9.00, incl 0.05 0.05Over 9.00 0.08 0.08Inch-Pound UnitsDiameter, in. PermissibleVariations, in.Permissible Out-of-Round, in.0.020 to 0.028, incl 0.0008 0.0008Over 0.028 to 0.075, incl 0.001 0.001Over 0.075 to 0.375, incl 0.002 0.002Over 0.375 to 0.500, incl 0.003 0.003AFor purposes of determining conformance with this specification, all specifiedlimits are absolute as defined in Practice E29.A231/A231M − 15312. Rejection and Rehearing12.1 Unless otherwise specified, any rejection based on testsmade in accordance with this specification shall be reported tothe manufacturer as soon as possible so that an investigationmay be initiated.12.2 The material shall be adequately protected and cor-rectly identified in order that the manufacturer may make aproper investigation.13. Certification13.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, amanufacturer’s or supplier’s certification shall be furnished tothe purchaser that the material was manufactured, sampled,tested, and inspected in accordance with this specification andhas been found to meet the requirements. When specified in thepurchase order or contract, a report of the test results shall befurnished.13.2 The certification shall include the specificationnumber, year date of issue, and revision letter, if any.14. Packaging, Marking, and Loading for Shipment14.1 The coil mass, dimensions, and the method of packag-ing shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer andpurchaser.14.2 The size of the wire, purchaser’s order number, ASTMSpecification number, heat number, and name or mark of themanufacturer shall be marked on a tag securely attached toeach coil of wire.14.3 Unless otherwise specified in the purchaser’s order,packing, marking, and loading for shipments shall be inaccordance with those procedures recommended by PracticesA700.15. Keywords15.1 alloy; chromium-vanadium; spring; wireSUMMARY OF CHANGESCommittee A01 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issueA231/A231M – 10 that may impact the use of this standard. Approved Nov. 1, 2015.1 Added Specification A510/A510M to Section 2.2 Removed Specification A752 from Section 2.3 Revised 5.3.ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional sta

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