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ASTM A230 - A 230M - 05 (2011)e1.pdf

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ASTM A230 - A 230M - 05 (2011)e1.pdf

Designation A230/A230M − 05 Reapproved 20111Standard Specification forSteel Wire, Oil-Tempered Carbon Valve Spring Quality1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A230/A230M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1NOTEChanges were made editorially throughout in July 2011.1. Scope*1.1 This specification covers the highest quality of roundcarbon steel spring wire, uniform in quality and temper,intended especially for the manufacture of valve springs andother springs requiring high-fatigue properties.1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in non-conformancewith the standard.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA510 Specification for General Requirements for Wire Rodsand Coarse Round Wire, Carbon SteelA510M Specification for General Requirements for WireRods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon Steel MetricA700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Meth-ods for Steel Products for ShipmentA751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemi-cal Analysis of Steel ProductsE29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data toDetermine Conformance with Specifications2.2 ANSI Standard3B 32.4M Preferred Metric Sizes for Round, Square, Rect-angle, and Hexagon Metal Products2.3 Military Standard4MIL-STD-163 Steel Mill Products, Preparation for Ship-ment and Storage2.4 Federal Standard4Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipment Civil Agencies2.5 AIAG Standard5AIAG B-5 02.00 Primary Metals Identification TagApplica-tion Standard3. Ordering Information3.1 Material furnished under this specification shall con-form to the applicable requirements of the current edition ofeither Specification A510 or Specification A510M.3.2 Orders for material under this specification shouldinclude the following information for each ordered item3.2.1 Quantity mass or weight,3.2.2 Name of material oil-tempered carbon steel valvespring quality wire,3.2.3 Dimensions Section 8,3.2.4 Chemical composition Table 1, if required,3.2.5 Packaging Section 14,3.2.6 Cast or heat analysis report, if desired see 5.2,3.2.7 Certification or test report, or both, if specified Sec-tion 13, and3.2.8 ASTM designation and date of issue.NOTE 1A typical metric ordering description is as follows Forinch-pound units, 40 000 lb oil-tempered carbon steel valve spring qualitywire, 0.250 in. diameter in 350-lb coils toASTM A230 dated _____, or forSI units 20 000 kg oil-tempered carbon steel valve spring quality wire,6.00 mm diameter in 125-kg coils to ASTM A230M dated _____.4. Materials and Manufacture4.1 The steel may be made by any commercially acceptedsteel-making process. The steel shall be continuously cast.4.2 The finished wire shall be free of detrimental pipe andundue segregation.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.03 on Steel Rod and Wire.Current edition approved July 1, 2011. Published July 2011. Originally approvedin 1939. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as A230/A230M – 05. DOI10.1520/A0230_A0230M-05R11E01.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3Available from American National Standards Institute ANSI, 25 W. 43rd St.,4th Floor, New York, NY 10036.4Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4,Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098.5Available from Automotive Industry Action Group AIAG, 26200 Lahser Rd.,Suite 200, Southfield, MI 48034.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;4.3 The wire shall be hardened and tempered to produce thedesired mechanical properties.5. Chemical Composition5.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements for chemicalcomposition prescribed in Table 1.5.2 Cast or Heat AnalysisEach cast or heat of steel shallbe analyzed by the manufacturer to determine the percentage ofelements prescribed in Table 1. This analysis shall be madefrom a test specimen preferably taken during the pouring of thecast or heat. When requested, this shall be reported to thepurchaser and shall conform to the requirements of Table 1.5.3 Product AnalysisAn analysis may be made by thepurchaser from finished wire representing each cast or heat ofsteel. The chemical composition thus determined, as to ele-ments required or restricted, shall conform to the productanalysis requirements specified in Table 10 of SpecificationA510 or Specification A510M.5.4 For referee purposes, Test Methods, Practices, andTerminology A751 shall be used.6. Mechanical Properties6.1 Tension Test6.1.1 RequirementsThe material as represented by tensiontest specimens shall conform to the requirements prescribed inTable 2 or Table 3.6.1.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach five coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each cast or heat ina given lot shall be tested.6.1.3 Location of TestsTest specimens shall be taken fromeither end of the coil.6.1.4 Test MethodThe tension test shall be made inaccordance with Test Methods and Definitions A370.6.2 Wrap Test6.2.1 RequirementsWire 0.162 in. [4.00 mm] and smallerin diameter shall wind on itself as an arbor without breakage.Larger diameter wire, up to and including 0.250 in. [6.50 mm],shall wind, without breakage, on a mandrel twice the diameterof the wire.6.2.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach five coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each cast or heat ina given lot shall be tested.6.2.3 Location of TestTest specimens shall be taken fromeither end of the coil.6.2.4 Test MethodThe wrap test shall be made in accor-dance with Test Methods and Definitions A370, SupplementIV.6.3 Twist TestA 10 in. [250 mm] specimen of wire slowlytwisted four revolutions in one direction and then twisted in theother direction until failure shall show a square break normal tothe axis of the wire without splits or cracks.6.4 Special Surface InspectionWhen specified, the entirelength of every coil shall be inspected for surface imperfectionswith a magnetic or eddy current defect analyzer, or both, orequivalent. The defect depth of this surface inspection shall beagreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser. Alldetected defects shall be properly marked so the purchaser hasthe ability to identify and discard that length of wire.7. Metallurgical Properties7.1 Decarburization7.1.1 RequirementsTransverse sections of the wire prop-erly mounted, polished and etched shall show no completelydecarburized carbon free areas when examined at 100magnification. Partial decarburization shall not exceed a depthof 0.001 in. [0.025 mm] on wire 0.192 in. [4.90 mm] andsmaller or 0.0015 in. [0.038 mm] on wire larger than 0.192 in.[4.90 mm]. Measure the worst area present excluding decar-burization associated with seams or other surface imperfec-tions. Complete decarburization exists when only free ferrite ispresent. Partial decarburization exists when ferrite is foundTABLE 1 Chemical RequirementsElement Composition, Carbon 0.60–0.75AManganese 0.60–0.90APhosphorus, max 0.025Sulfur, max 0.030Silicon 0.15–0.35ACarbon and manganese may be varied by the manufacturer at his discretion,provided the mechanical properties specified are maintained and provided thepurchaser does not specifically stipulate otherwise.TABLE 2 Tensile Requirements, SI UnitsDiameter, mm Tensile Strength, MPa Reduction ofAreas, min, Amin maxLess than 1.50 1700 1850 . . .1.50 to 2.50, incl 1650 1800 . . .Over 2.50 to 3.50, incl 1600 1750 40Over 3.50 to 4.00, incl 1580 1720 40Over 4.00 to 4.80, incl 1550 1700 40Over 4.80 to 5.50, incl 1520 1680 40Over 5.50 to 6.50, incl 1500 1650 40Over 6.50 1450 1600 40AThe reduction of area test is not applicable to wire diameters under 2.34 mm.TABLE 3 Tensile Requirements, Inch-Pound UnitsDiameter, in.Tensile Strength, ksiReduction ofArea, min, Amin maxLess than 0.062 245 265 . . .0.062 to 0.092, incl 240 260 . . .Over 0.092 to 0.128, incl 235 255 40Over 0.128 to 0.162, incl 230 250 40Over 0.162 to 0.192, incl 225 245 40Over 0.192 to 0.225, incl 220 240 40Over 0.225 to 0.250, incl 215 235 40Over 0.250 210 230 40AThe reduction of area test is not applicable to wire diameters under 0.092 in.A230/A230M − 05 201112Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;mixed with pearlite or tempered martensite. Structures of100 tempered martensite shall be defined as not decarbur-ized.7.1.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach five coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot.7.1.3 Location of TestsTest specimens may be taken fromeither end of the coil.7.2 Surface Condition7.2.1 The surface shall be smooth and free of defects such asseams, pits, die marks, and other defects tending to impair thefatigue value of the springs. Any additional surface require-ments must be negotiated at the time of entry of the order.7.2.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen from each end ofevery coil shall be tested for conformance to the provisionsof7.2.1.7.2.3 Test MethodThe surface shall be examined afteretching in a solution of equal parts of hydrochloric acid andwater that has been heated to approximately 80C for up to 2min in order to remove the oxide scale layer from the wiresurface. Examination shall be made using 10 magnification.7.3 MicrostructureAlongitudinal section shall show a finehomogeneous tempered martensitic structure.8. Dimensions and Permissible Variations8.1 The permissible variations in the diameter of the wireshall be as specified in Table 4 or Table 5.8.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen from each end ofthe coil shall be tested for conformance see 8.1.9. Workmanship and Appearance9.1 The wire shall be uniform in quality and temper andshall not be wavy or crooked.9.2 Each coil shall be one continuous length of wire,properly coiled, and firmly tied.9.3 No welds are permitted in the finished product and anywelds made during processing must be removed.10. Retests10.1 If any test specimen exhibits obvious defects or showsthe presence of a weld, it may be discarded and anotherspecimen substituted.11. Inspection11.1 Unless otherwise specified in the contract or purchaseorder, the manufacturer is responsible for the performance ofall inspection and test requirements specified in this specifica-tion. Except as otherwise specified in the contract or purchaseorder, the manufacturer may use his own or any other suitablefacilities for the performance of the inspection and testrequirements unless disapproved by the purchaser at the timethe order is placed. The purchaser shall have the right toperform any of the inspections and tests set forth in thisspecification when such inspections and tests are deemednecessary to assure that the material conforms to prescribedrequirements.12. Rejection and Rehearing12.1 Unless otherwise specified, any rejection based on testsmade in accordance with this specification shall be reported tothe manufacturer as soon as possible so that an investigationmay be initiated.12.2 The material must be adequately protected and cor-rectly identified in order that the manufacturer may make aproper investigation.13. Certification13.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, amanufacturer’s or supplier’s certification shall be furnished tothe purchaser that the material was manufactured, sampled,tested, and inspected in accordance with this specification andhas been found to meet the requirements. When specified in thepurchase order or contract, a report of the test results shall befurnished.13.2 The certification shall include the specification num-ber, year date of issue, and revision letter, if any.14. Packaging, Marking, and Loading for Shipment14.1 The coil mass, dimensions, and the method of packag-ing shall be as agreed upon between the manufacturer andpurchaser.14.2 The size of the wire, purchaser’s order number,ASTMspecification number, heat number, and name or mark of themanufacturer shall be marked on a tag securely attached toeach coil of wire.14.3 Unless otherwise specified in the purchaser’s order,packaging, marking, and loading for shipments shall be inaccordance with those procedures recommended by PracticesA700.TABLE 4 Permissible Variations in Wire Diameter, SI UnitsADiameter, mm Permissible Variations,plus and minus, mmPermissible Out-ofRound, mmLess than 1.50 0.01 0.011.50 to 2.50, incl 0.02 0.02Over 2.50 to 3.50, incl 0.03 0.033.50 to 4.50, incl 0.04 0.04Over 4.50 0.05 0.05AFor purposes of determining conformance with this specification, all specifiedlimits are absolute as defined in Practice E29.TABLE 5 Permissible Variations in Wire Diameter, Inch-PoundUnitsADiameter, in.Permissible Variations,plus and minus, in.Permissible Out-of-Round, in.Less than 0.062 0.0005 0.00050.062 to 0.092, incl 0.0008 0.0008Over 0.092 to 0.148, incl 0.001 0.001Over 0.148 to 0.177, incl 0.0015 0.0015Over 0.177 0.002 0.002AFor purposes of determining conformance with this specification, all specifiedlimits are absolute as defined in Practice E29.A230/A230M − 05 201113Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;14.4 For Government ProcurementPackaging, packing,and marking of material for military procurement shall be inaccordance with the requirements of MIL-STD-163, Level A,Level C, or commercial as specified in the contract or purchaseorder. Marking for shipment of material for civil agencies shallbe in accordance with Fed. Std. No. 123.14.5 Bar CodingIn addition to the previously-stated iden-tification requirements, bar coding is acceptable as a supple-mentary identification method. Bar coding should be consistentwith AIAG B-5 02.00, Primary Metals Identification TagApplication. The bar code may be applied to a substantiallyaffixed tag.15. Keywords15.1 carbon; oil-tempered; valve spring; wireSUMMARY OF CHANGESCommittee A01 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue,A230/A230M – 05, that may impact the use of this standard. Approved July 1, 2011.1 Changed ordering of units throughout.A

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