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ASTM A229 - A 229M - 12.pdf

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ASTM A229 - A 229M - 12.pdf

Designation A229/A229M − 12Standard Specification forSteel Wire, Quenched and Tempered for MechanicalSprings1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A229/A229M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1. Scope*1.1 This specification covers two classes of round andshaped quenched and tempered steel spring wire intendedespecially for the manufacture of mechanical springs and wireforms.1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore,each system shall be used independently of the other. Combin-ing values from the two systems can result in non-conformancewith the standard.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA510 Specification for General Requirements for Wire Rodsand Coarse Round Wire, Carbon SteelA510M Specification for General Requirements for WireRods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon Steel MetricA700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Meth-ods for Steel Products for ShipmentA751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemi-cal Analysis of Steel ProductsA941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, RelatedAlloys, and FerroalloysE29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data toDetermine Conformance with SpecificationsE1077 Test Methods for Estimating the Depth of Decarbur-ization of Steel Specimens3. Terminology3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard3.1.1 For definition of terms used in this specification, referto Terminology A941.4. Ordering Information4.1 It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to specifyall requirements that are necessary for material under thisspecification. Such requirements may include, but are notlimited to, the following4.1.1 Quantity mass or weight,4.1.2 Name of material quenched and tempered steel me-chanical spring wire and class Table 1 or Table 2,4.1.3 Dimensions Section 10,4.1.4 Chemical composition Table 3, if required,4.1.5 Packaging Section 16,4.1.6 Cast or heat analysis report, if desired see 7.2,4.1.7 Certification or test report, or both, if specified Sec-tion 15, and4.1.8 ASTM designation and date of issue.NOTE 1A typical metric ordering description is as follows 10 000 kgquenched and tempered steel mechanical spring wire, Class I, 8.00 mmdiameter, in 250-kg coils toASTM A229 M – xx, or for inch-pound units,20 000 lb quenched and tempered steel mechanical Spring Wire, ClassI 0.315 in. diameter, in 500-lb coils to ASTM A 229 – xx.5. General Requirements5.1 Material furnished to this specification shall conform tothe applicable requirements of either Specification A510MorSpecification A510.6. Materials and Manufacture6.1 The steel may be made by any commercially acceptedsteel-making process. The steel shall be fully killed.6.2 The finished wire shall be free of detrimental pipe andundue segregation.6.3 The wire shall be quenched and tempered to produce thedesired mechanical properties.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.03 on Steel Rod and Wire.Current edition approved April 15, 2012. Published April 2012. Originallyapproved in 1939. Last previous edition approved in 2005 A229/A229M – 992005. DOI 10.1520/A0229_A0229M-12.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;7. Chemical Composition7.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements for chemicalcomposition prescribed in Table 3.7.2 Cast or Heat AnalysisEach cast or heat of steel shallbe analyzed by the manufacturer to determine the percentage ofelements prescribed in Table 3. This analysis shall be madefrom a test specimen preferably taken during the pouring of thecast or heat. When requested, this shall be reported to thepurchaser and shall conform to the requirements of Table 3.7.3 Product AnalysisAn analysis may be made by thepurchaser from finished wire representing each cast or heat ofsteel. The chemical composition thus determined, as to ele-ments required or restricted, shall conform to the productanalysis requirements specified in Table 7 of SpecificationA510 or A510M.7.4 For referee purposes, Test Methods, Practices, andTerminology A751 shall be used.8. Mechanical Properties8.1 Tension Test8.1.1 RequirementsThe material as represented by tensiontest specimens shall conform to the requirements prescribed inTable 1 or Table 2. Tensile strength of shaped and flat rolledwires shall conform to either table based on the conversion toequivalent round dimensions.8.1.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach ten coils or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each cast or heat ina given lot shall be tested.8.1.3 Location of TestsRepresentative test specimens shallbe taken from either end of the coil.8.1.4 Test MethodThe tension test shall be made inaccordance with Test Methods and Definitions A370.8.2 Wrap Test8.2.1 RequirementsWire 0.157 in. [4.00 mm] and smallerin diameter shall wind on itself as an arbor without breakage.Larger diameter wire, up to and including 0.315 in. [8.00 mm]shall wind, without breakage, on a mandrel twice the wirediameter. Wrap test is not applicable to wires over 0.315 in.[8.00 mm] in diameter or to shaped and flat rolled wires.8.2.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach ten coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each cast or heat ina given lot shall be tested.8.2.3 Location of TestRepresentative test specimens shallbe taken from either end of the coil.TABLE 1 Tensile Requirements, SI UnitsADiameter, mmClass I Class IITensile Strength, MPa Tensile Strength, MPamin max min max0.50 2050 2250 2230 24500.55 2020 2220 2220 24400.60 2000 2200 2210 24300.65 1950 2150 2190 24100.70 1950 2150 2170 21900.80 1900 2100 2140 23600.90 1850 2050 2100 23201.00 1800 2000 2060 22801.10 1780 1980 2030 22401.20 1750 1950 2000 22101.40 1700 1900 1950 21501.60 1650 1850 1900 21001.80 1620 1820 1860 20602.00 1600 1800 1820 20202.20 1580 1780 1790 19902.50 1550 1750 1750 19502.80 1520 1720 1710 19003.00 1500 1700 1690 18803.50 1450 1620 1640 18304.00 1400 1580 1600 17804.50 1380 1550 1560 17405.00 1350 1520 1520 17005.50 1320 1500 1500 16806.00 1300 1480 1480 16607.00 1280 1450 1450 16308.00 1250 1430 1430 16109.00 1220 1400 1410 159010.00 1200 1380 1400 158011.00 1180 1350 1380 156012.00 1150 1320 1360 154014.00 1120 1300 1340 152016.00 1120 1300 1320 1500ATensile strength values for intermediate diameters shall be interpolated.TABLE 2 Tensile Requirements, Inch-Pound UnitsDiameter,Ain.Class I Class IITensile Strength, ksi† Tensile Strength, ksimin max min max0.020 293 323 324 3540.023 289 319 320 3500.026 286 316 317 3470.029 283 313 314 3440.032 280 310 311 3410.035 274 304 305 3350.041 266 296 297 3270.048 259 289 290 3200.054 253 283 284 3140.062 247 277 278 3080.072 241 271 272 3020.080 235 265 266 2960.092 230 260 261 2910.106 225 255 256 2860.120 220 250 251 2810.135 215 240 241 2660.148 210 235 236 2610.162 205 230 231 2560.177 200 225 226 2510.192 195 220 221 2460.207 190 215 216 2410.225 188 213 214 2390.244 187 212 213 2380.250 185 210 211 2360.312 183 208 209 2340.375 180 205 206 2310.438 175 200 201 2260.500 170 195 196 2210.562 165 190 191 2160.625 165 190 191 216ATensile strength values for intermediate diameters shall be interpolated.TABLE 3 Chemical RequirementsElement Composition, Carbon 0.55–0.85Manganese 0.30–1.20Phosphorus, max 0.040Sulfur, max 0.050Silicon 0.15–0.35A229/A229M − 122Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;8.2.4 Test MethodThe wrap test shall be made in accor-dance with Test Methods and Definitions A370, Annex A4.9. Metallurgical Requirements9.1 Surface ConditionThe surface of the wire as-receivedshall be free of rust and excessive scale. No serious die marks,pits, scratches, or other surface imperfections detrimental to theend application shall be present. The level, depth, or severitybeyond which these surface imperfections are unacceptablemay be further defined and agreed upon by the producer andthe purchaser.9.1.1 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach ten coils or fraction thereof, in a lot.9.1.2 Location of TestRepresentative test specimens shallbe taken from either or both ends of the coil.9.2 Decarburization, Seam Depth, and MicrostructureThe maximum depth of decarburization free ferrite plus partialdecarburization shall not exceed 2 of the equivalent roundwire diameter or 0.006 in. [0.15 mm] whichever is less. Thedepth of complete decarburization free ferrite shall notexceed 0.75 of the wire diameter. Seams shall not exceed3.5 of the equivalent round wire diameter of 0.010 in. [0.25mm], whichever is less. Except for surface locations affectedby decarburization, the wire shall have a fine, homogeneous,tempered martensite microstructure.9.2.1 Number of TestsWhere required by the purchaser,one test specimen shall be taken for each ten coils, or fractionthereof, in a lot and each cast or heat in a given lot shall betested.9.2.2 Location of TestRepresentative test specimens shallbe taken from either or both ends of the coil.9.2.3 Test MethodDecarburization and seam depth shallbe determined by chemical etching a suitably polished trans-verse section of wire, though seam depth may be determinedwithout etching. The entire periphery to be examined should bein a single plane with no edge rounding.9.2.4 Examination shall be performed at a magnification ofno less than 100 for depth of free ferrite and maximumaffected depth. Smaller wire sizes may require higher magni-fication. Measure the worst area present excluding decarbur-ization associated with seams or other surface imperfections.Complete decarburization exists when only free ferrite ispresent. Partial decarburization exists when ferrite is foundmixed with pearlite or tempered martensite. Structures of100 martensite shall be defined as not decarburized.9.2.5 Examination shall be performed at a magnification ofno less than 100 for depth of seams. Smaller wire sizes mayrequire higher magnification. Measure the seam having great-est depth as measured perpendicular to the wire surface.9.2.6 Examination shall be performed at a magnification ofno less than 100 for microstructure. Either the same suitablypolished and chemically etched transverse section used forassessment of decarburization and seam depth or anothersuitably polished transverse or longitudinal section may beused.10. Dimensions and Permissible Variations10.1 The permissible variations in the diameter of the wireshall be as specified in Table 4 or Table 5. Any definition ofshaped tolerances shall be agreed upon by the producer and thepurchaser.11. Uniformity, Straightness, and Continuity11.1 The wire shall be uniform in quality and temper andshall not be wavy or crooked.11.2 Each coil shall be one continuous length of wire,properly coiled and firmly tied. Welds made prior to colddrawing are permitted.12. Retests12.1 If any test specimen exhibits obvious defects or showsthe presence of a weld, it may be discarded and anotherspecimen substituted.13. Inspection13.1 Unless otherwise specified in the contract or purchaseorder, the manufacturer is responsible for the performance ofall inspection and test requirements specified in this specifica-tion, excluding testing for decarburization, seam depth, andmicrostructure. Except as otherwise specified in the contract orpurchase order, the manufacturer may use his own or any othersuitable facilities for the performance of the inspection and testrequirements unless disapproved by the purchaser at the timethe order is placed. The purchaser shall have the right toperform any of the inspections and tests set forth in thisspecification when such inspections and tests are deemednecessary to assure that the material conforms to prescribedrequirements.14. Rejection and Rehearing14.1 Unless otherwise specified, any rejection based on testsmade in accordance with this specification shall be reported tothe manufacturer as soon as possible so that an investigationmay be initiated.14.2 The material shall be adequately protected and cor-rectly identified in order that the manufacturer may make aproper investigation.15. Certification15.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, amanufacturer’s or supplier’s certification shall be furnished tothe purchaser that the material was manufactured, sampled,TABLE 4 Permissible Variations in Wire Diameter, SI UnitsADiameter, mmPermissibleVariations, plus andminus, mmPermissible Out-ofRound, mmTo 0.70, incl 0.02 0.02Over 0.70 to 2.00, incl 0.03 0.032.00 to 9.00, incl 0.05 0.05Over 9.00 0.08 0.08AFor purposes of determining conformance with this specification, all specifiedlimits are absolute as defined in Practice E29.A229/A229M − 123Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;tested, and inspected in accordance with this specification, hasbeen found to meet the requirements of this specification, andremains in conformance with this specification at time ofshipment. When specified in the purchase order or contract, areport of the test results shall be furnished.15.2 The certification shall include the specification num-ber, year date of issue, and revision letter, if any.16. Packaging, Marking, and Loading for Shipment16.1 The coil mass, dimensions, and the method of packag-ing shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer andpurchaser.16.2 A tag shall be securely attached to each coil of wirewith identifying information as agreed upon by the purchaserand manufacturer.16.3 Unless otherwise specified in the purchaser’s order,packaging, marking, and loading for shipments shall be inaccordance with those procedures recommended by PracticesA700.17. Keywords17.1 springs; tempered; wireSUMMARY OF CHANGESCommittee A01 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issueA229/A229M – 99R05 that may impact the use of this standard. Approved April 15, 2012.1 Revised title.2 Reordered units throughout text.3 Changed “oil-tempered” to “quenched and tempered”throughout text.4 Removed obsolete referenced docum

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