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ASTM A228 - A 228M - 14.pdf

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ASTM A228 - A 228M - 14.pdf

Designation A228/A228M − 14Standard Specification forSteel Wire, Music Spring Quality1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A228/A228M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers a high quality, round, cold-drawn steel music spring quality wire, uniform in mechanicalproperties, intended especially for the manufacture of springssubject to high stresses or requiring good fatigue properties.1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in non-conformancewith the standard.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA510/A510M Specification for General Requirements forWire Rods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon SteelA700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Meth-ods for Steel Products for Shipment Withdrawn 20143A751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemi-cal Analysis of Steel ProductsA938 Test Method for Torsion Testing of WireA941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, RelatedAlloys, and FerroalloysE29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data toDetermine Conformance with SpecificationsE1077 Test Methods for Estimating the Depth of Decarbur-ization of Steel Specimens2.2 Federal StandardFed. Std. No. 123, Marking for Shipment Civil Agencies42.3 American National Standard5B32.4 Preferred Metric Sizes for Round, Square, Rectangle,and Hexagon Metal Products2.4 AIAG Standard6AIAG B-5 02.00 Primary Metals Identification TagApplica-tion Standard3. Terminology3.1 DefinitionsFor definitions of terms used in thisspecification, refer to Terminology A941.4. Ordering Information4.1 Orders for steel wire under this specification shallcontain the following information4.1.1 Quantity weight in lbs, or mass in kg,4.1.2 Name of material music steel spring wire,4.1.3 Diameter Table 1 and Section 9,4.1.4 Finish see 10.2,4.1.5 Packaging Section 15, and4.1.6 ASTM designation and year of issue.4.2 The purchaser shall have the option to specify additionalrequirements, including but not limited to4.2.1 Requirements for certifications, heat, or test reports,see Section 14,4.2.2 Special packing, marking, and loading requirementssee Section 15, and4.2.3 Other special requirements, if any,NOTE 1A typical inch-pound units ordering description is as follows10 000 lb Music Steel Spring Wire, 0.055 in. diameter, phosphate coatedin 1000 lb coils to ASTM A288M_A228M dated _____, or for metricunits, 5000 kg Music Steel Spring Wire, 1.40 mm diameter, phosphatecoated in 500 kg coils to ASTM A288 dated _____.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.03 on Steel Rod and Wire.Current edition approved March 1, 2014. Published April 2014. Originallyapproved in 1939. Last previous edition approved in 2007 as A228/A228M – 07.DOI 10.1520/A0228_A0228M-14.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced onwww.astm.org.4Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, DODSSP, Bldg. 4,Section D, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111–5098, http//www.dodssp.daps.mil.5Available from American National Standards Institute ANSI, 25 W. 43rd St.,4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http//www.ansi.org.6Available from Automotive Industry Action Group AIAG, 26200 Lahser Rd.,Suite 200, Southfield, MI 48033, http//www.aiag.org.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;5. Materials and Manufacture5.1 The steel may be made by any commercially acceptedsteel-making process. The rod to be used in the manufacture ofwire furnished to this specification shall be in accordance withSpecification A510/A510M.5.2 The finished wire shall be free from detrimental pipeand undue segregation.5.3 The wire shall be cold drawn to produce the desiredmechanical properties.6. Chemical Composition6.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements for chemicalcomposition prescribed in Table 2.6.2 Heat AnalysisEach heat of steel shall be analyzed bythe manufacturer to determine the percentage of elementsprescribed in Table 2. This analysis shall be made from a testspecimen preferably taken during the pouring of the heat.When requested in the purchase order, the heat analysis shallbe reported to the purchaser.6.3 Product AnalysisAn analysis may be made by thepurchaser from finished wire representing each heat of steel.The chemical composition thus determined, as to elementsrequired or restricted, shall conform to the product analysisrequirements specified in Table 7 of Specification A510/A510M.6.4 For referee purposes, Test Methods, Practices, andTerminology A751 shall be used.7. Mechanical Properties7.1 Tension Test7.1.1 RequirementsThe material as represented by tensiontest specimens shall conform to the requirements prescribed inTable 1.7.1.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be takenfrom the top or outside end of each coil, reel, or spool, andshall be tested for conformance.7.1.3 Test MethodThe tension test shall be made inaccordance with Test Methods and Definitions A370.7.1.4 For wire diameters over 0.283 in. [7.2 mm], mechani-cal properties shall be negotiated between purchaser andsupplier and shall be included on the order information.7.2 Wrap Test7.2.1 RequirementsThe material shall conform to therequirements prescribed in Table 3. The requirement forconformance to wrap test on wires above 0.283 in. [7.2 mm] indiameter shall be agreed upon between purchaser and producer.7.2.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be takenfrom the top or outside end of each coil, reel or spool and shallbe tested for conformance.7.2.3 Test MethodEach test specimen shall be closedwound on an arbor as prescribed in Table 3 for a minimum offour full wraps. Wire so tested shall not show any splits orfractures.TABLE 1 Tensile RequirementsInch-Pound UnitsDiameter,in.ATensile Strength,ksi Diameter,in.ATensile Strength,ksimin max min max0.004 439 485 0.059 296 3270.005 426 471 0.063 293 3240.006 415 459 0.067 290 3210.007 407 449 0.072 287 3170.008 399 441 0.076 284 3140.009 393 434 0.080 282 3120.010 387 428 0.085 279 3080.011 382 422 0.090 276 3050.012 377 417 0.095 274 3030.013 373 412 0.100 271 3000.014 369 408 0.102 270 2990.015 365 404 0.107 268 2960.016 362 400 0.110 267 2950.018 356 393 0.112 266 2940.020 350 387 0.121 263 2900.022 345 382 0.125 261 2880.024 341 377 0.130 259 2860.026 337 373 0.135 258 2850.028 333 368 0.140 256 2830.030 330 365 0.145 254 2810.032 327 361 0.150 253 2790.034 324 358 0.156 251 2770.036 321 355 0.162 249 2750.038 318 352 0.177 245 2700.040 315 349 0.192 241 2670.042 313 346 0.207 238 2640.045 309 342 0.225 235 2600.048 306 339 0.250 230 2550.051 303 335 0.262 228 2530.055 300 331 0.283 223 248SI UnitsDiameter,mmATensile Strength, MPa Diameter,mmATensile Strength, MPamin max min max0.10 3000 3300 1.1 2120 23800.11 2950 3250 1.2 2100 23500.12 2900 3200 1.4 2050 23000.14 2850 3150 1.6 2000 22500.16 2800 3100 1.8 1980 22200.18 2750 3050 2.0 1950 22000.20 2700 3000 2.2 1900 21500.22 2680 2980 2.5 1850 21000.25 2650 2950 2.8 1820 20500.28 2620 2920 3.0 1800 20000.30 2600 2900 3.2 1780 19800.35 2550 2820 3.5 1750 19500.40 2500 2750 3.8 1720 19200.45 2450 2700 4.0 1700 19000.50 2400 2650 4.5 1680 18800.55 2380 2620 5.0 1650 18500.60 2350 2600 5.5 1620 18200.65 2320 2580 6.0 1600 18000.70 2300 2550 6.5 1580 17800.80 2250 2500 7.0 1550 17500.90 2200 2450 7.2 1540 17401.00 2150 2400ATensile strength values for intermediate diameters may be interpolated.TABLE 2 Chemical RequirementsElement Composition, Carbon 0.70–1.00Manganese 0.20–0.70Phosphorus, max 0.025Sulfur, max 0.030Silicon 0.10–0.30A228/A228M − 142Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;7.3 Torsion Test7.3.1 RequirementsThe torsion test shall be applied towire sizes 0.70 mm [0.028 in.] and larger in diameter. For wiresizes smaller in diameter than 0.70 mm [0.028 in.], the torsiontest may be substituted for the wrap test 7.2. In this case, theminimum number of torsions to failure will be equivalent to 25in a test length of 100d.7.3.2 Number of testsOne test specimen shall be takenfrom the top or outside end of each coil, reel, or spool and shallbe tested for conformance.7.3.3 Test MethodTest specimens shall be prepared andtested as shown in A938 with the following exception. Theminimum number of torsions twists to failure in a test lengthof 100d where d the wire diameter being tested are shownin Table 4.7.3.4 Following completion of the torsion test, the torsionfracture shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of thetest specimen and the surface of the test specimen shall not besplit. Secondary recoil fractures shall be ignored.7.3.5 Test lengths other than 100d may be utilized. In thiscase, the minimum number of torsions to failure shall beadjusted in direct proportion to the change in test length asdetermined by the following formulaTx5Td3LxLd1whereTx minimum number of torsions for new test length,Td minimum number of torsions for 100d test length,Lx new test length, andLd 100d test length7.3.6 For wire diameters over 0.283 in. [7.2 mm], therequirement for torsion testing shall be negotiated betweenpurchaser and supplier and shall be included on the orderinformation.8. Metallurgical Requirements8.1 Surface Condition8.1.1 The surface of the wire as-received shall be free ofrust, excessive scale, die marks, pits, and scratches detrimentalto the end application. Seams shall not exceed 2 of the wirediameter or 0.15 mm [0.006 in.], whichever is less.8.1.2 Location of TestTest specimens shall be taken fromeither or both ends of the coil.8.2 Decarburization8.2.1 The maximum affected depth of decarburization shallnot exceed 2 of the wire diameter or 0.15 mm [0.006 in.],whichever is less. The maximum average partial decarburiza-tion depth shall not exceed 1.5 of the wire diameter whenmeasured using the test method described in 8.2.3.8.2.2 Test MethodDecarburization shall be determined byetching a suitably polished transverse section of wire withnital. The entire periphery to be examined should be in a singleplane with no edge rounding. See Test Method E1077.8.2.3 The entire periphery shall be examined at a magnifi-cation of no less than 100 for depth of free ferrite andmaximum affected depth. Smaller wire sizes may requirehigher magnification. Complete decarburization exists whenonly free ferrite is present. The worst case location shall beused to position perpendicular bisectors as shown in Fig. 1.Thedepth of decarburization D shall be measured at each of thefour points where the perpendicular bisectors cross the circum-ference of the wire. The four readings so obtained shall beaveraged, and the average shall not exceed 1.5 of the wirediameter.8.2.4 The purchaser may specify more restrictive decarbur-ization requirements where necessary for special applications.TABLE 3 Wrap Test RequirementsInch-Pound UnitsDiameter, in. Mandrel SizeLess than 0.028 10.028 to 0.256, incl 2Over 0.256 to 0.283, incl 3SI UnitsDiameter, mm Mandrel SizeLess than 0.70 10.70 to 6.5, incl 2Over 6.5 to 7.2, incl 3TABLE 4 Number of Torsions to Failure for Torsion TestInch-Pound UnitsDiameter, in. Number of Torsions in 100d0.028 to 0.079, incl 25over 0.079 to 0.138, incl 20over 0.138 to 0.283, incl 15SI UnitsDiameter, mm Number of Torsions in 100d0.70 to 2.0, incl 25over 2.0 to 3.5, incl 20over 3.5 to 7.2, incl 15FIG. 1 Positioning of Perpendicular BisectorsA228/A228M − 143Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;These requirements shall be negotiated between the purchaserand supplier and must be included in the order information.8.2.5 There are no decarburization requirements for wiresizes smaller in diameter than 2.0 mm [0.078 in].9. Dimensions and Permissible Variations9.1 The permissible variations in the diameter of the wireshall be as specified in Table 5.10. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance10.1 WorkmanshipThe wire shall not be kinked or im-properly cast. To test for cast, one convolution of wire shall becut from the coil, reel, or spool and placed on a flat surface.Thewire shall not spring up nor show a wavy condition. Wirebelow 4.0 mm or 0.156 in. diameter shall lie flat while wirediameters larger than the above shall lie substantially flat.10.1.1 Each coil, reel, or spool shall be one continuouslength of wire, properly coiled and firmly tied.10.1.2 Welds made prior to cold drawing are permitted. Ifunmarked welds are unacceptable to the purchaser, specialarrangements should be made with the manufacturer at the timeof purchase.10.2 FinishMusic wire is supplied with many differenttypes of finish such as bright, phosphate, tin, and others. Finishdesired should be specified on purchase orders.11. Retests11.1 If any test specimen exhibits obvious defects or showsthe presence of a weld, it shall be discarded and anotherspecimen substituted.12. Inspection12.1 Unless otherwise specified in the contract or purchaseorder, the manufacturer is responsible for the performance ofall inspection and test requirements specified in this specifica-tion. Except as otherwise specified in the contract or purchaseorder, the manufacturer may use his own or any other suitablefacilities for the performance of the inspection and testrequirements unless disapproved by the purchaser at the timethe order is placed. The purchaser shall have the right toperform any of the inspections and tests set forth in thisspecification when such inspections and tests are deemednecessary to assure that the material conforms to prescribedrequirements.13. Rejection and Rehearing13.1 Unless otherwise specified, any rejection based on testsmade in accordance with these specifications shall be reportedto the manufacturer as soon as possible so that an investigationmay be initiated.13.2 The material shall be adequately protected and identi-fied correctly for the manufacturer to make a proper investi-gation.14. Certification14.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract

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