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ASTM A227 - A 227M - 06 (2011).pdf

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ASTM A227 - A 227M - 06 (2011).pdf

Designation A227/A227M − 06 Reapproved 2011Standard Specification forSteel Wire, Cold-Drawn for Mechanical Springs1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A227/A227M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1. Scope*1.1 This specification covers two classes of round cold-drawn steel spring wire having properties and quality for themanufacture of mechanical springs that are not subject to highstress or requiring high fatigue properties and wire forms.1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in non-conformancewith the standard.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA510 Specification for General Requirements for Wire Rodsand Coarse Round Wire, Carbon SteelA510M Specification for General Requirements for WireRods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon Steel MetricA700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Meth-ods for Steel Products for ShipmentA751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemi-cal Analysis of Steel ProductsA941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, RelatedAlloys, and FerroalloysE29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data toDetermine Conformance with Specifications2.2 American National StandardB 32.4M Preferred Metric Sizes for Round, Square, Rect-angle, and Hexagon Metal Products32.3 Federal StandardFed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipment Civil Agencies42.4 AIAG StandardAIAG B-5 02.00 Primary Metals Identification Tag Applica-tion Standard53. Terminology3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard3.1.1 For definition of terms used in this specification, referto Terminology A941.4. Ordering Information4.1 It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to specifyall requirements that are necessary for material under thisspecification. Such requirement may include, but are notlimited to, the following4.1.1 Quantity mass,4.1.2 Name of material cold-drawn steel mechanical springwire and class Table 1 or Table 2,4.1.3 Wire diameter Table 1 or Table 2,4.1.4 Packaging Section 15,4.1.5 Cast or heat analysis report, if requested Section 6,4.1.6 Certification or test report, or both, if specified Sec-tion 14, and4.1.7 ASTM designation and date of issue.NOTE 1A typical ordering description is as follows 15 000 kgCold-Drawn Mechanical Spring Wire, Class I, Size 5.00 mm in 700-kgcoils to ASTM A227M dated_______, or for non-SI units, 30 000 lbCold-Drawn Mechanical Spring Wire, Class I, Size 0.207 in. diameter in500-lb coils to ASTM A227 dated_______.5. Manufacture5.1 The steel may be made by any commercially acceptedsteel-making process. The steel may be either ingot cast orstrand cast.5.2 The finished wire shall be free of detrimental pipe andundue segregation.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.03 on Steel Rod and Wire.Current edition approved May 1, 2011. Published May 2011. Originallyapproved in 1939. Last previous edition approved in 2006 as A227/A227M – 06.DOI 10.1520/A0227_A0227M-06R11.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3Available from American National Standards Institute ANSI, 25 W. 43rd St.,4th Floor, New York, NY 10036.4Available from Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4 Section D, 700Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, Attn NPODS.5Available from Automotive Industry Action Group AIAG, 26200 Lahser Rd.,Suite 200, Southfield, MI 48034.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;5.3 The wire shall be cold drawn to produce the desiredmechanical properties.6. Chemical Composition6.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements for chemicalcomposition prescribed in Table 3.6.2 Cast or Heat AnalysisEach cast or heat of steel shallbe analyzed by the manufacturer to determine the percentage ofelements prescribed in Table 3. This analysis shall be madefrom a test specimen preferably taken during the pouring of thecast or heat. When requested, this shall be reported to thepurchaser and shall conform to the requirements of Table 3.6.3 Product AnalysisAn analysis may be made by thepurchaser from finished wire representing each cast or heat ofsteel. The chemical composition thus determined, as to ele-ments required or restricted, shall conform to the productanalysis requirements specified in Table 10 of SpecificationA510 or A510M.6.4 For referee purposes, Test Methods, Practices, andTerminology A751 shall be used.7. Mechanical Properties7.1 Tension Test7.1.1 RequirementsThe material as represented by tensiontest specimens shall conform to the requirements prescribed inTable 1 or Table 2.7.1.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach ten coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each cast or heat ina given lot shall be tested.7.1.3 Location of TestsTest specimens shall be taken fromeither end of the coil.7.1.4 Test MethodThe tension test shall be made inaccordance with Test Methods and Definitions A370.7.2 Wrap Test7.2.1 RequirementsThe material as represented by thewrap test specimens shall conform to the requirements speci-fied in Table 4 or Table 5. Wrap test on wires over 8.5 mm or0.312 in. in diameter is not applicable. Since the conventionalmethods will not accommodate over 8.5 mm or 0.312 in., analternative test procedure shall be agreed upon between pur-chaser and producer.TABLE 1 Tensile Requirements, SI UnitsADiameter,BmmClass I Class IITensile Strength, MPa Tensile Strength MPamin max min max0.50 1960 2240 2240 25200.55 1940 2220 2220 25000.60 1920 2200 2200 24800.65 1900 2180 2180 24600.70 1870 2140 2140 24100.80 1830 2100 2100 23700.90 1800 2070 2070 23401.00 1770 2040 2040 23101.10 1740 2000 2000 22601.20 1720 1980 1980 22401.40 1670 1930 1930 21801.60 1640 1880 1880 21201.80 1600 1840 1840 20802.00 1580 1810 1810 20402.20 1550 1780 1780 20102.50 1510 1730 1730 19602.80 1480 1700 1700 19203.00 1460 1680 1680 19003.50 1420 1630 1630 18404.00 1380 1590 1590 18004.50 1350 1550 1550 17505.00 1320 1510 1510 17005.50 1300 1490 1490 16706.00 1280 1470 1470 16506.50 1250 1440 1440 16307.00 1220 1410 1410 16007.50 1200 1390 1390 15808.00 1190 1370 1370 15509.00 1160 1340 . . . . . .10.00 1130 1310 . . . . . .11.00 1110 1280 . . . . . .12.00 1090 1260 . . . . . .14.00 1050 1210 . . . . . .16.00 1010 1170 . . . . . .ATensile strength values for intermediate diameters may be interpolated.BPreferred sizes. For a complete list, refer to ANSI B32.4M, Preferred Metric Sizesfor Round, Square, Rectangle, and Hexagon Metal Products.TABLE 2 Tensile Requirements, Inch-Pound UnitsADiameter, in.Class I Class IITensile Strength, ksi Tensile Strength, ksimin max min max0.020 283 323 324 3640.023 279 319 320 3600.026 275 315 316 3560.029 271 311 312 3520.032 266 306 307 3470.035 261 301 302 3420.041 255 293 294 3320.048 248 286 287 3250.054 243 279 280 3160.062 237 272 273 3080.072 232 266 267 3010.080 227 261 262 2960.092 220 253 254 2870.106 216 248 249 2810.120 210 241 242 2730.135 206 237 238 2690.148 203 234 235 2660.162 200 230 231 2610.177 195 225 226 2560.192 192 221 222 2510.207 190 218 219 2470.225 186 214 215 2430.250 182 210 211 2390.312 174 200 201 2270.375 167 193 194 2200.438 165 190 191 2160.500 156 180 181 2050.562 152 176 177 2010.625 147 170 171 294ATensile strength values for intermediate diameters shall be interpolated.TABLE 3 Chemical RequirementsElement Composition, Carbon 0.45–0.85AManganese 0.30–1.30BPhosphorus, max 0.040Sulfur, max 0.050Silicon 0.15–0.35ACarbon in any one lot shall not vary more than 0.13 .BManganese in any one lot shall not vary more than 0.30 .A227/A227M − 06 20112Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;7.2.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach ten coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each cast or heat ina given lot shall be tested.7.2.3 Location of TestTest specimens shall be taken fromeither end of the coil.7.2.4 Test MethodThe wrap test shall be made in accor-dance with Test Methods and Definitions A370, SupplementIV.8. Metallurgical Requirements8.1 Surface Condition8.1.1 The surface of the wire as-received shall be free ofrust, excessive scale, die marks, pits and scratches detrimentalto the end application. Seams shall not exceed 3.5 of thewire diameter or 0.25 mm [0.010 in.], whichever is less.8.1.2 Location of TestTest specimens shall be taken fromeither or both ends of the coil.9. Dimensions and Permissible Variations9.1 The permissible variations in the diameter of the wireshall be as specified in Table 6 or Table 7.10. Workmanship and Appearance10.1 WorkmanshipThe wire shall not be kinked or im-properly cast. To test for cast, a few convolutions of wire shallbe cut from the coil and placed on a flat surface. The wire shalllie flat on itself and not spring up excessively nor show a wavycondition.10.1.1 Each coil shall be one continuous length of wire,properly coiled and firmly tied. Welds made prior to colddrawing are permitted.11. Retests11.1 If any test specimen exhibits obvious defects or showsthe presence of a weld, it shall be discarded and anotherspecimen substituted.12. Inspection12.1 Unless otherwise specified in the contract or purchaseorder, the manufacturer is responsible for the performance ofall inspection and test requirements specified in this specifica-tion. Except as otherwise specified in the contract or purchaseorder, the manufacturer may use his own or any other suitablefacilities for the performance of the inspection and testrequirements unless disapproved by the purchaser at the timethe order is placed. The purchaser shall have the right toperform any of the inspections and tests set forth in thisspecification when such inspections and tests are deemednecessary to assure that the material conforms to prescribedrequirements.13. Rejection and Rehearing13.1 Unless otherwise specified, any rejection based on testsmade in accordance with this specification shall be reported tothe manufacturer as soon as possible so that an investigationmay be initiated.13.2 The material shall be adequately protected and cor-rectly identified in order that the manufacturer may make aproper investigation.14. Certification14.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, amanufacturer’s or supplier’s certification shall be furnished tothe purchaser that the material was manufactured, sampled,tested, and inspected in accordance with this specification andhas been found to meet the requirements. When specified in thepurchase order or contract, a report of the test results shall befurnished.14.2 The certification shall include the specification num-ber, year date of issue, and revision letter, if any.15. Packaging, Marking, and Loading for Shipment15.1 The coil mass, dimensions, and the method of packag-ing shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer andpurchaser.15.2 A tag shall be securely attached to each coil of wirewith identifying information as agreed upon by the purchaserand manufacturer.TABLE 4 Wrap Test Requirements, SI UnitsDiameter, mmMandrel SizeClass I Class II0.50 to 4.0, inclOver 4.0 to 8.0, incl1XA2X2X4XAFor 1X mandrel, wire shall be wrapped on itself.TABLE 5 Wrap Test Requirements, Inch-Pound UnitsDiameter, in.Mandrel SizeClass I Class II0.020 to 0.162, incl 1XA2XOver 0.162 to 0.312, incl 2X 4XAFor 1X mandrel, wire shall be wound on itself.TABLE 6 Permissible Variations in Wire Diameter, SI UnitsADiameter, mmPermissibleVariations,plus and minus,mmPermissible Out-ofRound, mmTo 0.70, incl 0.02 0.02Over 0.70 to 2.00, incl 0.03 0.03Over 2.00 to 9.00, incl 0.05 0.05Over 9.00 0.08 0.08AFor purposes of determining conformance with this specification, all specifiedlimits are absolute as defined in Practice E29.TABLE 7 Permissible Variations in Wire Diameter, Inch-PoundUnitsADiameter, in.PermissibleVariations, plus andminus, in.PermissibleOut-of-Round, in.0.020 to 0.028, incl 0.0008 0.0008Over 0.028 to 0.075, incl 0.001 0.001Over 0.075 to 0.375, incl 0.002 0.002Over 0.375 to 0.625, incl 0.003 0.003AFor purposes of determining conformance with this specification, all specifiedlimits are absolute as defined in Practice E29.A227/A227M − 06 20113Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;15.3 Unless otherwise specified in the purchaser’s order,packaging, marking, and loading for shipments shall be inaccordance with those procedures recommended by PracticesA700.15.4 For Government ProcurementMarking for shipmentof material for civil agencies shall be in accordance with Fed.Std. No. 123.15.5 Bar CodingIn addition to the previously stated iden-tification requirements, bar coding is acceptable as a supple-mentary identification method. Bar coding should be consistentwith AIAG Standard 02.00, Primary Metals Identification TagApplication. The bar code may be applied to a substantiallyaffixed tag.16. Keywords16.1 cold-drawn; springs; wireSUMMARY OF CHANGESCommittee A01 has identified the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue,A227/A227M–99 2005, that may impact the use of this standard. Approved March 1, 2006.1 Removed referenced document MIL-STD-163. This stan-dard is obsolete and all references were removed.2 In 15.4, deleted the first sentence pertaining to MIL-STD-163 as that standard is obsolete.3 In Table 1, there was a mistake on the 4.00 mm wire size forClass 2. The correct numbers have been added.4 Added Summary of Changes.ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional sta

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