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ASTM A194A194M-16.pdf

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ASTM A194A194M-16.pdf

Designation A194/A194M − 16 Endorsed byManufacturers Standardization Societyof the Valve and Fittings IndustryUsed in USNRC-RDT StandardsStandard Specification forCarbon Steel, Alloy Steel, and Stainless Steel Nuts for Boltsfor High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A194/A194M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.1. Scope*1.1 This specification2covers a variety of carbon, alloy, andmartensitic stainless steel nuts in the size range1⁄4 through 4 in.and metric M6 through M100 nominal. It also covers austeniticstainless steel nuts in the size range1⁄4 in. and M6 nominal andabove. These nuts are intended for high-pressure or high-temperature service, or both. Grade substitutions without thepurchaser’s permission are not allowed.1.2 Bars from which the nuts are made shall be hot-wrought.The material may be further processed by centerless grindingor by cold drawing. Austenitic stainless steel may be solutionannealed or annealed and strain-hardened. When annealed andstrain hardened austenitic stainless steel is ordered in accor-dance with Supplementary Requirement S1, the purchasershould take special care to ensure that 8.2.2, SupplementaryRequirement S1, and Appendix X1 are thoroughly understood.1.3 Supplementary requirements of an optional nature areprovided. These shall apply only when specified in the inquiry,contract, and order.1.4 This specification is expressed in both inch-pound unitsand in SI units. However, unless the order specifies theapplicable “M” specification designation SI units, the mate-rial shall be furnished to inch-pound units.1.5 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in non-conformancewith the standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown inbrackets.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards3A153/A153M Specification for Zinc Coating Hot-Dip onIron and Steel HardwareA276 Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and ShapesA320/A320M Specification for Alloy-Steel and StainlessSteel Bolting for Low-Temperature ServiceA370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA962/A962M Specification for Common Requirements forBolting Intended for Use at Any Temperature from Cryo-genic to the Creep RangeB633 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Zinc onIron and SteelB695 Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically De-posited on Iron and SteelB696 Specification for Coatings of Cadmium MechanicallyDepositedB766 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Cad-miumE112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain SizeE566 Practice for Electromagnetic Eddy Current Sorting ofFerrous MetalsF606 Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Proper-ties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners,Washers, and Rivets Metric F0606_F0606MF1940 Test Method for Process Control Verification toPrevent Hydrogen Embrittlement in Plated or CoatedFastenersF1941 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings onThreaded Fasteners Metric F1941_F1941MF2329 Specification for Zinc Coating, Hot-Dip, Require-ments for Application to Carbon and Alloy Steel Bolts,Screws, Washers, Nuts, and Special Threaded Fasteners1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and BoltingMaterials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications.Current edition approved May 1, 2016. Published May 2016. Originallyapproved in 1936. Last previous edition approved in 2015 as A194/A194M – 15a.DOI 10.1520/A0194_A0194M-16.2For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Specifi-cation SA-194 in Section II of that code.3For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---2.2 ASME Standards4B 1.1 Unified Screw ThreadsB 1.2 Gages and Gaging for Unified Inch Screw ThreadsB 1.13M Metric Screw ThreadsB 18.2.2 Square and Hex NutsB 18.2.4.6M Metric Heavy Hex Nuts2.3 ISO Standards54033 Hexagon High Nuts Style 2 – Product A and B3. Terminology3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard3.1.1 Austenitic GradesAll grades with a prefix of “8” or“9.”3.1.2 Ferritic GradesGrades 1, 2, 2H, 2HM, 3, 4, 6, 6F, 7,7M, and 16.3.1.3 LotUnless otherwise specified see Discussionbelow, a lot is the quantity of nuts of a single nominal size andgrade produced by the same manufacturing process.3.1.3.1 DiscussionWhen Supplementary Requirement S5is invoked on the purchase order, the following definitions of alot shall apply3.1.3.2 For Grade 8 NutsThe quantity of all the nuts of asingle nominal diameter and grade made from the same heat ofsteel and made by the same manufacturing process.3.1.3.3 For All Other Grade Nutssee 8.2 and8.1.2.1All the nuts of a single nominal diameter and grademade from the same heat number and heat treated in the samebatch if batch-type heat treating equipment is used or heattreated in the same continuous run of not more than 8 h underthe same conditions if continuous-type heat treating equipmentis used.3.1.4 Type3.1.4.1 For Grade 8 NutsVariations within the gradedesignated by a letter and differentiated by chemistry and bymanufacturing process.3.1.4.2 For Grade 6 NutsVariations within the gradedesignated by the letter F as differentiated by chemical addi-tions made for machineability.3.1.5 SeriesThe dimensional relationship and geometry ofthe nuts as described in ASME B 18.2.2 for inch nuts and ISO4033 for metric nuts sizes M6 through M10 and ASME B18.2.4.6M for nuts sizes M12 through M100.4. Ordering Information4.1 The inquiry and order for bolting material and boltingcomponents under this specification shall include the followingas required to describe the items adequately4.1.1 Specification designation, year date, and grade, issuedate and revision letter,4.1.2 Quantity, number of pieces,4.1.3 Dimensions see Section 9,4.1.4 Options in accordance with 8.2.2.1, 9.1, 9.2, 10.3, and12, and4.1.5 Supplementary Requirements, if any.4.2 CoatingsCoatings are prohibited unless specified bythe purchaser see Supplementary Requirements S7 and S8.When coated nuts are ordered, the purchaser should takespecial care to ensure that Appendix X2 is thoroughly under-stood.4.3 See Supplementary Requirement S3 for nuts to be usedin low temperature applications Specification A320/A320M.4.4 Proof Load TestingSee Supplementary RequirementS9 for proof load testing of nuts manufactured to dimensionsand configurations other than those covered in Tables 3 and 4.5. Common Requirements5.1 Bolting material and bolting components supplied tothis specification shall conform to the requirements of Speci-fication A962/A962M, of which nuts are considered boltingcomponents, as are bolts, studs, screws, and washers intendedfor use in special service applications. These requirementsinclude test methods, finish, thread dimensions, marking,certification, optional supplementary requirements, and others.Failure to comply with the requirements of SpecificationA962/A962M constitutes nonconformance with this specifica-tion. In case of conflict between the requirements of thisspecification and Specification A962/A962M, this specificationshall prevail.6. Manufacture Process6.1 Stainless steels for all types of Grade 6 and 8 nuts shallbe made by one of the following processes6.1.1 Electric-furnace with separate degassing and refiningoptional,6.1.2 Vacuum induction furnace, or6.1.3 Either of the above followed by electroslag remelting,or consumable-arc remelting.6.2 The steel producer shall exercise adequate control toeliminate excessive unhomogeneity, nonmetallics, pipe,porosity, and other defects.6.3 Grades 1 and 2 nuts shall be hot or cold forged, or shallbe machined from hot-forged, hot-rolled, or cold-drawn bars.6.3.1 All Grade 1 and 2 nuts shall be stress-relieved at atemperature of at least 1000 F [538 C] after forming ormachining from bar with the following exceptions6.3.1.1 Nuts made by hot forging.6.3.1.2 Nuts machined from hot-forged or hot-rolled bar.6.3.1.3 Nuts machined from hot-forged/hot-rolled and cold-finished max 10 reduction in area bar.6.3.1.4 Nuts machined from cold-drawn and annealed min1000 F [538 C] bar.6.3.2 Grade 1 and 2 nuts made by hot forging or bymachining from hot-forged or hot-rolled bars need not be stressrelieved.6.4 Grades 2H, 2HM, 3, 4, 6, 6F, 7, 7M, and 16 nuts shallbe hot- or cold-forged or shall be machined from hot-forged,hot-rolled, or cold-drawn bars and shall be heat treated to meet4Available from American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME, ASMEInternational Headquarters, Two Park Ave., New York, NY 10016-5990, http//www.asme.org.5Available from International Organization for Standardization ISO, 1, ch. dela Voie-Creuse, CP 56, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, http//www.iso.org.A194/A194M − 162Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---TABLE1ChemicalRequirementsA,B,C,DGradeSymbolMaterialUNSNumberCarbon,Manga-nese,Phospho-rus,Sulfur,ESilicon,Chromium,Nickel,Molyb-denum,Tita-nium,Colum- biumNitrogen,OtherElements,1carbon0.15min1.000.0400.0500.40.....................2,2HM,and2Hcarbon0.40min1.000.0400.0500.40.....................4Gcarbon, molyb- denum0.40–0.500.70–0.900.0350.0400.15–0.35......0.20–0.30............3Type5010.10min1.000.0400.0301.004.0–6.0...0.40–0.65............6Type410S410000.08–0.151.000.0400.0301.0011.5–13.5..................6FType416S416000.151.250.0600.15min1.0012.0–14.0..................6FType416SeS416230.151.250.0600.0601.0012.0–14.0............Selenium, 0.15min7,7MType4140/ 4142/ 4145, 4140H, 4142H, 4145H0.38–0.480.75–1.00.0350.040.15–0.350.80–1.10...0.15–0.25............8,8AType304S304000.082.000.0450.0301.0018.0–20.08.0–11.0...............8C,8CAType347S347000.082.000.0450.0301.0017.0–19.09.0–12.0......10xcarbon content, min1.10......8CLN, 8CLNAType347LNS347510.005- 0.0202.000.0450.0301.0017.0–19.09.0–13.0......0.20–0.50, 15xcarbon content, min0.06–0.10...8M,8MAType316S316000.082.000.0450.0301.0016.0–18.010.0–14.02.00–3.00............8T,8TAType321S321000.082.000.0450.0301.0017.0–19.09.0–12.0...5xCN min-0.70 max...0.10...8F,8FAType303S303000.152.000.200.15min1.0017.0–19.08.0–10.0...............8F,8FAType303SeS303230.152.000.200.061.0017.0–19.08.0–10.0.........Selenium, 0.15min8P,8PAType305S305000.122.000.0450.0301.0017.0–19.011.0–13.0...............8N,8NAType304NS304510.082.000.0450.0301.0018.0–20.08.0–11.0.........0.10–0.168LN,8LNAType304LNS304530.0302.000.0450.0301.0018.0–20.08.0–11.0.........0.10–0.168MN,8MNAType316NS316510.082.000.0450.0301.0016.0–18.010.0–13.02.00–3.00......0.10–0.168MLN, 8MLNAType316LNS316530.0302.000.0450.0301.0016.0–18.010.0–13.02.00–3.00......0.10–0.168R,8RAFXM19S209100.064.0–6.00.0450.0301.0020.5–23.511.5–13.51.50–3.00...0.10–0.300.20–0.40Vanadium,0.10–0.308S,8SAS218000.107.0–9.00.0600.0303.5–4.516.0–18.08.0–9.0.........0.08–0.188MLCuN, 8MLCuNAS31254S312540.0201.000.0300.0100.8019.5–20.517.5–18.56.0–6.5......0.18–0.22Copper,0.50–1.00B8ML4CuNS31730S317300.0302.000.0400.0101.0017.0–19.015.0–16.53.0–4.0......0.045Copper 4.0–5.09C,9CAN08367N083670.0302.000.0400.0301.0020.0-22.023.5-25.56.0-7.00.18-0.25Copper 0.75A194/A194M − 163Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---TABLE1ContinuedGradeSymbolMaterialUNSNumberCarbon,Manga-nese,Phospho-rus,Sulfur,ESilicon,Chromium,Nickel,Molyb-denum,Tita-nium,Colum- biumNitrogen,OtherElements,16Chromium Molyb- denum Vanadium0.36–0.470.45–0.700.0350.0400.15–0.350.80–1.15...0.50–0.65.........Vanadium,0.25–0.35 AluminumB0.015ATheintentionaladditionofBi,Se,Te,andPbisnotpermittedexceptforGrades6F,8F,and8FA,inwhichSeisspecifiedandrequired.BTotalaluminum,solubleandinsoluble.CMaximum,unlessminimumorrangeisindicated.DWhereellipses{appearinthistablethereisnorequirementandtheelementneednotbedeterminedorreported.EBecauseofthedegreetowhichsulfursegregates,productanalysisforsulfurover0.060maxisnottechnologicallyappropriate.FAsdescribedinSpecificationA276.GGrade4isexpectedtobewithdrawnwithinapproximately2years.Grade7isanacceptablesubstituteforGrade4.See7.2.A194/A194M − 164Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--,,,,,,,,,,,,,--,,,,,,,---the required mechanical properties. These grades shall beuniformly reheated to the proper austenitizing temperature agroup thus reheated being known as a quenching charge andquenched under substantially uniform conditions for eachquenching charge and tempered as shown below. Grades 2H,2HM, 3, 4, 7, and 7M shall be liquid quenched. Grades 6 and6F shall be quenched in liquid or inert gas. Grade 16 shall beheated to a temperature range from 1700 to 1750 F 925 to955 C and oil quenched.GradeMinimum Tempering Temperature, F[C]2H 850 [455]2HM 1150 [620]3 1050 [565]4 1100 [595]6 and 6F 1100 [595]7 1100 [595]7M 1150 [620]16 1200 [650]Nuts machined from bar heat treated in accordance with thisspecification need not be reheat-treated. For Grade 2HM and7M nuts, a final stress relief shall be done at or above theminimum tempering temperature after all forming, machining,and tapping operations. This final stress relief may be thetempering operation.6.4.1 Grade 6 and 6F nuts shall be tempered for a minimumof1hatthetemperature.6.5 Grades 8, 8C, 8CLN, 8M, 8T, 8F, 8P, 8N, 8MN, 8R, 8S,8LN, 8MLN, 8MLCuN, 8ML4CuN, and 9C nuts shall be hotor cold forged, or shall be machined from hot-forged, hot-rolled or cold-drawn bars.6.6 Grades 8A, 8CA, 8CLNA, 8MA, 8TA, 8FA, 8PA, 8NA,8MNA

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