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ASTM A185 - 02.pdf

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ASTM A185 - 02.pdf

Designation A 185 – 02Standard Specification forSteel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain, for Concrete1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 185; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1. Scope*1.1 This specification covers welded wire reinforcement tobe used for the reinforcement of concrete.NOTE 1Welded wire for concrete reinforcement has been describedby various terms welded wire fabric, WWF, fabric, and mesh. The wirereinforcement industry prefers the term “welded wire reinforcement”WWR as being more representative of the range of products beingmanufactured. Therefore, the term “welded wire fabric” has been replacedwith the term “welded wire reinforcement” in this specification and inrelated specifications.1.2 The values stated in inch-pound or SI units are to beregarded as standard. Within the text the inch-pound units areshown in parenthesis. The values stated in each system are notexact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used inde-pendently of the other. Combining values may result innonconformance with the specification.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM StandardsA 82 Specification for Steel Wire, Plain, for Concrete Re-inforcement2A 700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and LoadingMethods for Steel Products for Domestic Shipment32.2 Military StandardsMIL-STD-129 Marking for Shipment and Storage4MIL-STD-163 Steel Mill Products Preparation for Ship-ment and Storage42.3 Federal StandardFed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipments Civil Agencies43. Terminology3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard3.1.1 convoluted wirewhen wire for welded wire rein-forcement is formed into a sinusoidal wave shape, it iscommonly referred to as convoluted wire. The wire is used inthe manufacture of cages for certain applications of concretepipe reinforcing.3.1.2 welded wire reinforcementas used within the scopeand intent of this specification, designates a material composedof cold-drawn steel wire, as-drawn or galvanized, fabricatedinto sheets or rolls by the process of electric resistancewelding. The finished material shall consist essentially of aseries of longitudinal and transverse wires arranged substan-tially at right angles to each other, and welded together atpoints of intersection.4. Ordering Information4.1 Orders for material to this specification should includethe following information4.1.1 Quantity weight or square area,4.1.2 Name of material welded wire reinforcement forconcrete,4.1.3 Wire spacings and sizes,4.1.4 Minimum yield strength if Supplement S 1 of Speci-fication A 82 applies.4.1.5 Exclusion of oversteeling, if required see 8.4.2,4.1.6 Length and width of sheets or rolls,4.1.7 Packaging see Section 16, and4.1.8 ASTM designation and year of issue.NOTE 2A typical ordering description is as follows 10 000 ft2welded wire reinforcement for concrete, 4 3 12-W15 3 W 6, in flat sheets96 in. wide by 240 in. long, in secured lifts, to ASTM A 185– _______ .5. Materials5.1 The wire used in the manufacture of welded wirereinforcement shall conform to Specification A 82 and itsSupplement S1 if so ordered.5.2 Welded wire reinforcement shall be furnished either inflat sheets, or in rolls, as specified by the purchaser.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.05 on Steel Reinforcement.Current edition approved Sept 10, 2002. Published June 2003. Originallypublished as A 185 – 36 T. Last previous edition A 185 – 01.2Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.04.3Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.05.4Available from Standardization Documents, Order Desk, Bldg. 4, Section D,700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094.1*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.6. Manufacture6.1 The wires shall be assembled by automatic machines orby other suitable mechanical means which will assure accuratespacing and alignment of all wires of the finished welded wirereinforcement.6.2 Longitudinal and transverse wires shall be securelyconnected at every intersection by a process of electrical-resistance welding which employs the principle of fusioncombined with pressure.6.3 Wire of proper grade and quality when fabricated in themanner herein required shall result in a strong, serviceablemat-type product having substantially square or rectangularopenings. It shall be fabricated and finished in a workmanlikemanner, shall be free from injurious defects, and shall conformto this specification.NOTE 3A variation of manufacturing includes the application of oneor more longitudinal convoluted wires at one edge of welded wirereinforcement for concrete pipe reinforcing cages. This shape allows thecage ends to be expanded to a larger diameter to accommodate thebell-shaped ends of concrete pipe.7. Mechanical Property Requirements7.1 TensileWire for the production of welded wire rein-forcement is described in Specification A 82. Tensile tests maybe made on wire cut from the welded wire reinforcement andtested either across or between the welds; no less than 50 shall be across welds. Tensile tests across a weld shall have thewelded intersection located approximately at the center of thewire being tested and the cross wire forming the weldedintersection shall extend approximately 25 mm 1 in. beyondeach side of the welded intersection.NOTE 4Tensile, reduction of area, and bend testing are normally doneat the time the wire is drawn. The manufacturer’s finished product stillmust satisfy the mechanical properties when tested after fabrication.7.2 Reduction of AreaThe ruptured section of the tensilespecimen is measured to determine this property. In the case ofa specimen which has been tested across a weld, the measure-ment shall be made only when rupture has occurred at asufficient distance from the center of a weld to permit anaccurate measurement of the fractured section. The wire shallmeet the minimum reduction of area requirements of Specifi-cation A 82.7.3 Bend TestThe wire shall withstand the bend test asdescribed in Specification A 82 and shall be performed on aspecimen taken from between the welds.7.4 Weld Shear StrengthThe weld shear strength betweenlongitudinal and transverse wires shall be tested as described inSection 11. The minimum average shear value in Newtonsshall be not less than 241 multiplied by the nominal area of thelarger wire in square millimetres or in pounds-force shall notbe less than 35 000 multiplied by the nominal area of the largerwire in square inches. Typical examples of the 40 or morewire size differential area as followsLarger SmallerSize No. W 20 Size No. W 8Size No. W 15 Size No. W 6Size No. W 10 Size No. W 47.4.1 Welded wire reinforcement having a relationship oflongitudinal and transverse wires other than those covered in7.4 shall not be subject to the weld shear requirement.7.4.2 Weld-shear tests for determination of conformance tothe requirements of 7.4 shall be conducted using a fixture asdescribed in Section 11.7.4.3 Four welds selected at random from the specimendescribed in 11.2 shall be tested for weld shear strength. Thetransverse wire of each test specimen shall extend approxi-mately 25 mm 1 in. on each side of the longitudinal wire. Thelongitudinal wire of each test specimen shall be of such lengthbelow the transverse wire so as to be adequately engaged bythe grips of the testing machine. It shall be of such lengthabove the transverse wire that its end shall be above the centerline of the upper bearing of the testing device.7.4.4 The material shall be deemed to conform to therequirements for weld shear strength if the average of the foursamples complies with the value stipulated in 7.4. If theaverage fails to meet the prescribed value, all the welds acrossthe specimen shall then be tested. The welded wire reinforce-ment will be acceptable if the average of all weld shear testvalues across the specimen meets the prescribed minimumvalue.8. Dimensions, Mass, and Permissible Variations8.1 WidthThe width of welded wire reinforcement shallbe considered to be the center-to-center distance betweenoutside longitudinal wires. The permissible variation shall notexceed 13 mm 1⁄2 in. greater or less than the specified width.In case the width of flat sheets or rolls is specified as the overallwidth tip-to-tip length of cross wires, the width shall not varymore than 625 mm 61 in. from the specified width.8.2 LengthThe overall length of flat sheets, measured onany wire, may vary 625 mm 61 in., or 1 , whichever isgreater.8.3 Overhang of the transverse wires shall not projectbeyond the centerline of each longitudinal edge wire more thana distance of 25 mm 1 in., unless otherwise specified. Whentransverse wires are specified to project a specific lengthbeyond the center line of a longitudinal edge wire, thepermissible variation shall not exceed 13 mm 1⁄2 in. greateror less than the specified length.8.4 The permissible variation in diameter of any wire in thefinished welded wire reinforcement shall conform to thetolerances prescribed for the wire before fabrication, in Speci-fication A 82, with the following exceptions8.4.1 Because of the mechanical characteristics of fabricat-ing welded wire reinforcement, the out-of-round requirementsshall not apply.8.4.2 Unless otherwise precluded by the purchaser, themanufacturer will be permitted to apply over-sized wire notunder-sized. The size differential shall not exceed one “W”size increment on sizes W 8 and smaller, and two “W” sizeincrements on sizes larger than W 8. A “W” size increment isa whole number increment, for example, W 5 to W 6, or W 5.4to W 6.4, etc. In all cases where such over-steeling is practiced,the producer shall identify the welded wire reinforcement withthe style originally ordered.A185–0228.5 The average spacing of wires shall be such that the totalnumber of wires contained in a sheet or roll is equal to orgreater than that determined by the specific spacing, but thecenter-to-center distance between individual members mayvary not more than 6.35 mm 1⁄4 in. from the specified spacing.It is understood that sheets of welded wire reinforcement of thespecified length may not always contain an identical number oftransverse wires and, therefore, may have various lengths oflongitudinal overhang.9. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance9.1 Wire of proper grade and quality, when fabricated in themanner herein required, shall result in a strong, serviceablemat-type product having substantially square or rectangularopenings. It shall be fabricated and finished in a workmanlikemanner, as determined by visual inspection, and shall conformto this specification.10. Number of Tests10.1 One test for conformance to tensile strength and bendrequirements shall be made for each 6 968 m275 000 ft2ofwelded wire reinforcement or remaining fraction thereof.10.2 One test for conformance to weld shear strengthrequirement shall be made for each 27 870 m2300 000 ft2ofwelded wire reinforcement or remaining fraction thereof.11. Weld Shear Test Apparatus and Methods11.1 As the welds in welded wire reinforcement contributeto the bonding and anchorage value of the wires in concrete, itis imperative that the weld acceptance tests be made in a jigthat will stress the weld in a manner similar to which it isstressed in concrete. In order to accomplish this the verticalwire in the jig must be stressed in an axis close to its centerline. Also the horizontal wire must be held closely to thevertical wire, and in the same relative position, so as to preventrotation of the horizontal wire. When the welded wire rein-forcement is designed with different wire sizes, the largerdiameter wire is the “vertical wire’’ when tested see Fig. 15.11.2 Fig. 1 shows the details of a typical testing jig togetherwith two anvils which make it possible to test welds for wire5A detailed drawing showing complete dimensions of the testing jig may beobtained from ASTM Headquarters. Order ADJA0185.FIG. 1 Welded Wire Reinforcement Weld TesterA185–023up to 15.88 mm 5⁄8 in. in diameter. This testing jig can be usedin most tension testing machines and should be hung in a balland socket arrangement at the center of the machine. This, ora similarly effective fixture designed on the same principle, isacceptable.11.3 Test specimens should be inserted through the notch inthe anvil using the smallest notch available in which thevertical wire will fit loosely. The vertical wire shall be incontact with the surface of the free rotating rollers while thehorizontal wire shall be supported by the anvil on each side ofthe slot. The bottom jaws of the testing machine shall grip thelower end of the vertical wire and the load shall be applied ata rate of stressing not to exceed 689 MPa/min 100 000psi/min.12. Sampling12.1 Test specimens for testing mechanical properties shallbe obtained by cutting from the finished welded wire reinforce-ment a full width section, of sufficient length to perform testingdescribed in 7.1 and 7.2.12.2 Test specimens for determining weld-shear propertiesshall be obtained by cutting from the finished welded wirereinforcement, a full width section of sufficient length toperform testing described in 7.4.12.3 Measurements for conformance to dimensional char-acteristics shall be made on full sheets or rolls.12.4 If any test specimen exhibits obvious imperfections, itmay be discarded and another specimen substituted.13. Inspection13.1 The inspector representing the purchaser shall havefree entry at all times while work on the contract of thepurchaser is being performed to all parts of the manufacturer’sworks that concern the manufacture of the material ordered.The manufacturer shall afford the inspector all reasonablefacilities to assure that the material is being furnished inaccordance with this specification.13.2 Except for yield strength, all tests and inspections shallbe made at the place of manufacture prior to shipment, unlessotherwise specified. Such tests shall be so conducted as not tointerfere unnecessarily with the operation of the works.13.3 If the purchaser considers it desirable to determinecompliance with the yield strength requirements of Specifica-tion A 82, yield strength tests may be made in a recognizedlaboratory, or their representative may make the test at the mill,if such tests do not interfere unnecessarily with the milloperations.13.4 For U.S. Government Procurement OnlyExcept asotherwise specified in the

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