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ASTM A181 - A 181M - 14.pdf

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ASTM A181 - A 181M - 14.pdf

Designation A181/A181M − 14Standard Specification forCarbon Steel Forgings, for General-Purpose Piping1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A181/A181M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.1. Scope*1.1 This specification2covers nonstandard as-forgedfittings, valve components, and parts for general service.Forgings made to this specification are limited to a maximumweight of 10 000 lb [4540 kg]. Larger forgings may be orderedto Specification A266/A266M.1.2 Two classes of material are covered, designated asClasses 60 and 70, respectively, and are classified in accor-dance with their mechanical properties as specified in 6.1.1.3 This specification is expressed in both inch-pound unitsand SI units. However, unless the order specifies the applicable“M” specification designation SI units, the material shall befurnished to inch-pound units.1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, theSI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in eachsystem are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system mustbe used independently of the other. Combining values from thetwo systems may result in nonconformance with the specifi-cation.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards3A266/A266M Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings forPressure Vessel ComponentsA788/A788M Specification for Steel Forgings, General Re-quirementsA961/A961M Specification for Common Requirements forSteel Flanges, Forged Fittings, Valves, and Parts forPiping Applications3. General Requirements and Ordering Information3.1 Product furnished to this specification shall conform tothe requirements of Specification A961/A961M, including anysupplementary requirements that are indicated in the purchaseorder. Failure to comply with the requirements of SpecificationA961/A961M constitutes non-conformance with this specifi-cation.3.2 It is the purchaser’s responsibility to specify in thepurchase order all ordering information necessary to purchasethe needed material. Examples of such information include butare not limited to the ordering information in SpecificationA961/A961M and the following3.2.1 Supplementary requirements, and3.2.2 Additional requirements See 4.3, 9.1, 11.2, 13.1, and13.2.3.3 If the requirements of this specification are in conflictwith the requirements of Specification A961/A961M, therequirements of this specification shall prevail.4. Materials and Manufacture4.1 Except for flanges of all types, hollow, cylindricallyshaped parts may be machined from hot-rolled or forged bar,provided that the axial length of the part is approximatelyparallel to the metal flow lines of the stock. Other parts,excluding flanges of all types, up to and including NPS 4 maybe machined from hot-rolled or forged bar. Elbows, returnbends, tees, and header tees shall not be machined directlyfrom bar stock.4.2 Except as permitted in 4.1, the finished product shall bea forging as defined in the Terminology section exclusively ofSpecification A788/A788M.4.3 When specified in the order, the manufacturer shallsubmit for approval of the purchaser a sketch showing theshape of the rough forging before machining.4.4 Forgings shall be protected against sudden or too rapidcooling from the rolling or forging while passing through thecritical range.4.5 Heat treatment is neither required nor prohibited, butwhen applied, heat treatment shall consist of tempering,annealing, normalizing, or normalizing and tempering.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and BoltingMaterials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications.Current edition approved Oct. 1, 2014. Published October 2014. Originallyapproved in 1935. Last previous edition approved in 2013 as A181/A181M–13.DOI 10.1520/A0181_A0181M-14.2For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Specifi-cation SA-181 in Section II of that Code.3For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;5. Chemical Composition5.1 An analysis of each heat shall be made by the manufac-turer to determine the percentages of the elements specified inTable 1. The chemical composition thus determined shallconform to the requirements in Table 1.6. Mechanical Properties6.1 The material shall conform to the requirements as totensile properties prescribed in Table 2.7. Number of Tests7.1 One tension test shall be made from each heat.7.2 If any test specimen is defectively machined, it may bediscarded and another specimen substituted.8. Retests8.1 When one or more representative test specimens do notconform to specification requirements for the testedcharacteristic, only a single retest for each nonconformingcharacteristic may be performed to establish product accept-ability. Retests shall be performed on twice the number ofrepresentative specimens that were originally nonconforming.When any retest specimen does not conform to specificationrequirements for the characteristic in question, the lot repre-sented by that specimen shall be rejected, heat-treated orreheat-treated in accordance with 4.5, and tested in accordancewith Sections 6 and 7.9. Reports of Testing9.1 Upon request of the purchaser in the contract or order, areport of the test results and chemical analyses shall befurnished. The specification designation included on reports oftesting shall include year of issue and revision letter, if any.10. Surface Finish, Appearance, and CorrosionProtection10.1 The requirements of Specification A961/A961M applyto forgings and finished parts.11. Repair by Welding11.1 Repair welding, by the manufacturer, is permissible forparts made to dimensional standards such as those of ANSI orequivalent standards.11.2 Prior approval of the purchaser shall be required toweld repair special parts made to the purchaser’s requirements.11.3 The composition of the weld deposits shall be similarto the base metal and in accordance with the procedurequalification for the applicable material. Welding shall beaccomplished with a weld procedure designed to produce lowhydrogen in the weldment. Short-circuit gas metal arc weldingis permissible only with the approval of the purchaser.12. Product Marking12.1 See Specification A961/A961M.12.2 Bar CodingIn addition to the requirements in 12.1,bar coding is acceptable as a supplementary identificationmethod. The purchaser may specify in the order a specific barcoding system to be used. The bar coding system, if applied atthe discretion of the supplier, should be consistent with one ofthe published industry standards for bar coding. If used onsmall parts the bar code may be applied to the box or asubstantially applied tag.13. Certification13.1 See Specification A961/A961M.13.2 A test report of the results for chemistry Section 5 andTable 1 and tensile properties Section 6 and Table 2 shall befurnished.14. Keywords14.1 pipe fittings, steel; piping applications; pressure con-taining parts; steel forgings, carbon; steel valvesTABLE 1 Chemical RequirementsElement Composition, Classes 60 and 70Carbon, max 0.35Manganese, max 1.10APhosphorus, max 0.05Silicon 0.10-0.35Sulfur, max 0.05AManganese may be increased to 1.65 max provided the carbon is reduced0.01 for each 0.06 increase in manganese over the limit shown in the table.TABLE 2 Tensile RequirementsClass 60 Class 70Tensile strength, min, ksi [MPa] 60 [415] 70 [485]Yield strength,Amin, ksi [MPa] 30 [205] 36 [250]Elongation in 2 in. [50 mm], min, 22 18Reduction of area, min, 35 24ADetermined by either the 0.2 offset method or the 0.5 extension-under-loadmethod.A181/A181M − 142Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTSS1. Carbon EquivalentS1.1 The maximum carbon equivalent based on heat analy-sis shall be as followsClass Maximum Carbon Equivalent ValueMaximum Section ThicknessLess Than or Equal to 2 in.Maximum Section ThicknessGreater Than 2 in.60700.450.470.460.48S1.2 Determine the carbon equivalent CE as followsCE 5 C1Mn⁄61Cr1 Mo1 V⁄51Ni1 Cu⁄15S1.3 A lower maximum carbon equivalent may be agreedupon between the supplier and the purchaser.S1.4 When this Supplementary Requirement is invoked, allelements in the carbon equivalent formula shall be analyzedand the amounts reported.SUMMARY OF CHANGESCommittee A01 has identified the location of selected changes to this specification since the last issue,A181/A181M–13, that may impact the use of this specification. Approved October 1, 20141 Added Section 10 on Surface Quality, Appearance, andCorrosion Protection.Committee A01 has identified the location of selected changes to this specification since the last issue,A181/A181M–12, that may impact the use of this specification. Approved October 1, 20131 Revised Sections 12 and 13 on marking and certification.ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standardsand should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of theresponsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you shouldmake your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,United States. Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the aboveaddress or at 610-832-9585 phone, 610-832-9555 fax, or serviceastm.org e-mail; or through the ASTM websitewww.astm.org. Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the Copyright Clearance Center, 222Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, Tel 978 646-2600; http//www.copyright.com/A181/A181M − 143Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;

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