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ASTM A178 - A 178M - 02 (2012).pdf

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ASTM A178 - A 178M - 02 (2012).pdf

Designation A178/A178M − 02 Reapproved 2012Standard Specification forElectric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel and Carbon-Manganese Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A178/A178M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1. Scope1.1 This specification2covers minimum-wall-thickness,electric-resistance-welded tubes made of carbon steel andcarbon-manganese steel intended for use as boiler tubes, boilerflues, superheater flues, and safe ends.NOTE 1Type C and D tubes are not suitable for safe-ending for forgewelding.1.2 The tubing sizes and thicknesses usually furnished tothis specification are1⁄2 to 5 in. [12.7 to 127 mm] in outsidediameter and 0.035 to 0.360 in. [0.9 to 9.1 mm], inclusive, inminimum wall thickness. Tubing having other dimensions maybe furnished, provided such tubes comply with all otherrequirements of this specification.1.3 Mechanical property requirements do not apply totubing smaller than1⁄8 in. [3.2 mm] in inside diameter or 0.015in. [0.4 mm] in thickness.1.4 Optional supplementary requirements are provided andwhen desired, shall be so stated in the order.1.5 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, theSI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in eachsystem are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system mustbe used independently of the other. Combining values from thetwo systems may result in nonconformance with the specifi-cation. The inch-pound units shall apply unless the “M”designation of this specification is specified in the order.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards3A450/A450M Specification for General Requirements forCarbon and Low Alloy Steel TubesE213 Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe andTubingE273 Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of the Weld Zone ofWelded Pipe and Tubing3. Ordering Information3.1 Orders for material under this specification shouldinclude the following, as required, to describe the desiredmaterial adequately3.1.1 Quantity feet, metres, or number of lengths,3.1.2 Name of material electric-resistance-welded tubes,3.1.3 Grade A, C, or D, Table 1,3.1.4 Size outside diameter and minimum wall thickness,3.1.5 Length specific or random,3.1.6 Optional requirements product analysis, Section 7;crush test, Section 10; hydrostatic or nondestructive electrictest, 11.6,3.1.7 Test report required Certification Section of Specifi-cation A450/A450M,3.1.8 Specification designation,3.1.9 Individual supplementary requirements, if required,and3.1.10 Special requirements.4. Manufacture4.1 The steel for Grade D shall be killed.4.2 Tubes shall be made by electric-resistance welding.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.09 on Carbon Steel Tubular Products.Current edition approved Sept. 1, 2012. Published November 2012. Originallyapproved in 1935. Last previous edition approved in 2007 as A178/A178M – 022007. DOI 10.1520/A0178_A0178M-02R12.2For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Specifi-cation SA-178 in Section II of that Code.3For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;5. Heat Treatment5.1 After welding, all tubes shall be heat treated at atemperature of 1650F [900C] or higher and followed bycooling in air or in the cooling chamber of a controlled-atmosphere furnace. Cold-drawn tubes shall be heat treatedafter the final cold-draw pass at a temperature of 1200F[650C] or higher.6. Chemical Composition6.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements as tochemical composition prescribed in Table 1.6.2 When a grade is ordered under this specification, sup-plying an alloy grade that specifically requires the addition ofany element other than those listed in Table 1 is not permitted.7. Product Analysis7.1 When requested on the purchase order, a product analy-sis shall be made by the manufacturer or supplier from one tubeper 100 pieces for sizes over 3 in. [76.2 mm] and one tube per250 pieces for sizes 3 in. [76.2 mm] and under; or when tubesare identified by heat, one tube per heat shall be analyzed. Thechemical composition thus determined shall conform to therequirements specified.7.2 If the original test for product analysis fails, retests oftwo additional lengths of flat-rolled stock or tubes shall bemade. Both retests, for the elements in question, shall meet therequirements of the specification; otherwise all remainingmaterial in the heat or lot Note 2 shall be rejected or, at theoption of the producer, each length of flat-rolled stock or tubemay be individually tested for acceptance. Lengths of flat-rolled stock or tubes which do not meet the requirements of thespecifications shall be rejected.NOTE 2Alot consists of 250 tubes for sizes 3 in. [76.2 mm] and underand of 100 tubes for sizes over 3 in. [76.2 mm], prior to cutting to length.8. General Requirements8.1 Material furnished under this specification shall con-form to the applicable requirements of the current edition ofSpecification A450/A450M unless otherwise provided herein.9. Tensile Requirements9.1 Grade C and D tubes shall conform to the requirementsas to tensile properties prescribed in Table 2.NOTE 3Explanatory NoteFor purposes of design the followingtensile properties may be assumed for Grade A tubesTensile strength, min, ksi [MPa] 47 [325]Yield Strength, min, ksi [MPa] 26 [180]Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, min, 359.2 Table 3 gives the computed minimum elongation valuesfor each1⁄32-in. [0.8 mm] decrease in wall thickness. Where thewall thickness lies between two values shown above, theminimum elongation value shall be determined by the follow-ing equationE 5 48t115.00E 5 1.87t115.00whereE elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, , and,t actual thickness of specimen, in. [mm].10. Crush Test10.1 When required by the purchaser, crushing tests shall bemade on sections of tube 21⁄2 in. [63 mm] in length which shallstand crushing longitudinally without cracking, splitting, oropening at the weld, as followsWall Thickness ofTubes, in. [mm]Height of Crushed Section, in. [mm]Grade A Tubes Grade C and D Tubes0.135 [3.43] and under3⁄4 [19] or until outsidefolds are in contactCrush tests not requiredOver 0.135 [3.43] 11⁄4 [32] ...10.2 For tubing less than 1 in. [25.4 mm] in outsidediameter, the length of the specimen shall be 21⁄2 times theoutside diameter of the tube. Slight surface checks shall not because for rejection.11. Mechanical Tests Required11.1 Flattening TestTABLE 1 Chemical RequirementsElementComposition, Grade A,Low-CarbonSteelGrade C,Medium-Carbon SteelGrade D, Carbon-Man-ganese SteelCarbon 0.06–0.18 0.35 max 0.27 maxManganese 0.27–0.63 0.80 max 1.00–1.50Phosphorus, max 0.035 0.035 0.030Sulfur, max 0.035 0.035 0.015Silicon ... ... 0.10 minTABLE 2 Tensile RequirementsGrade C Grade DTensile strength, min, ksi [MPa] 60 [415] 70 [485]Yield strength, min, ksi [MPa] 37 [255] 40 [275]Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, min, 30 30For longitudinal strip tests a deduction foreach1⁄32-in. [0.8 mm] decrease in wallthickness below5⁄16 in. [8 mm] from thebasic minimum elongation of thefollowing percentage points shall bemade.1.50A1.50AASee Table 3 for the computed minimum values.TABLE 3 Minimum Elongation ValuesWall Thickness Elongation in 2 in. or 50mm, min, Ain. mm5⁄16 0.312 8 309⁄32 0.281 7.2 291⁄4 0.250 6.4 277⁄32 0.219 5.6 263⁄16 0.188 4.8 245⁄32 0.156 4 221⁄8 0.125 3.2 213⁄32 0.094 2.4 201⁄16 0.062 1.6 18ACalculated elongation requirements shall be rounded to the nearest wholenumber.A178/A178M − 02 20122Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;11.1.1 For Grade A, one flattening test shall be made onspecimens from each of two tubes from each lot Note 2orfraction thereof, and from each 2000 ft [600 m] or fractionthereof of safe-end material.11.1.2 For Grades C and D, one flattening test shall be madeon specimens from each of two tubes from each lot Note 2orfraction thereof.11.2 Flange Test11.2.1 For Grade A, one flange test shall be made onspecimens from each of two tubes from each lot Note 2orfraction thereof, and from each 2000 ft [600 m] or fractionthereof of safe-end material.11.2.2 For Grades C and D, one flange test shall be made onspecimens from each of two tubes from each lot Note 2orfraction thereof. The width of the flange shall not be less than75 of that specified in Specification A450/A450M.11.3 Crush TestFor Grade A, when required by thepurchaser, one crush test shall be made on specimens fromeach of two tubes from each lot Note 2 or fraction thereof,and from each 2000 ft [600 m] or fraction thereof of safe-endmaterial.11.4 Tension TestFor Grades C and D, one tension testshall be made on specimens from each of two tubes from eachlot. The term lot for tension test requirements applies to alltubes prior to cutting, of the same nominal diameter and wallthickness, which are produced from the same heat of steel.When final heat treatment is in a batch-type furnace, a lot shallinclude only those tubes of the same size and the same heatwhich are heat treated in the same furnace charge. When thefinal heat treatment is in a continuous furnace, a lot shallinclude all tubes of the same size and heat, heat treated in thesame furnace, at the same temperature, time at heat, andfurnace speed.11.5 Reverse Flattening TestOne reverse flattening testshall be made on each 1500 ft [450 m] of finished tubing.11.6 Hydrostatic or Nondestructive Electric TestEachtube shall be subjected to either the hydrostatic or the nonde-structive electric test. The purchaser may specify which test isto be used.12. Forming Operations12.1 When inserted in the boiler, tubes shall withstandexpanding and beading without showing cracks or flaws, oropening at the weld. When properly manipulated, superheatertubes shall withstand all forging, welding, and bending opera-tions necessary for application without developing defects.13. Product Marking13.1 In addition to the marking prescribed in SpecificationA450/A450M, the letters “ERW” shall be legibly stenciled oneach tube, or marked on a tag attached to the bundle or box inwhich the tubes are shipped.13.2 The manufacturer’s name or symbol may be placedpermanently on each tube by rolling or light stamping beforenormalizing. If a single stamp is placed on the tube by hand,this mark should not be less than 8 in. [200 mm] from one endof the tube.14. Keywords14.1 boiler tube; resistance welded steel tube; steel tube,carbon; welded steel tubeSUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTSThe following supplementary requirements may become a part of the specification when specifiedin the inquiry or invitation to bid, and production order or contract. These requirements shall not beconsidered, unless specified in the order and the necessary tests shall be made at the mill.S1. Additional Testing of Welded Tubing for ASME Re-quirementsS1.1 The weld seam of each tube shall be subjected to anultrasonic inspection employing Practices E273 or E213 withthe rejection criteria referenced in Specification A450/A450M.S1.2 If Practice E273 is employed, a 100 volumetricinspection of the entire length of each tube shall also beperformed using one of the nondestructive electric tests per-mitted by Specification A450/A450M.S1.3 The test methods described in the supplement may notbe capable of inspecting the end portions of tubes. Thiscondition is referred to as end effect. This portion, as deter-mined by the manufacturer, shall be removed and discarded.S1.4 In addition to the marking prescribed in SpecificationA450/A450M, “S1” shall be added after the grade designation.A178/A178M − 02 20123Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standardsand should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of theresponsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you shouldmake your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,United States. Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the aboveaddress or at 610-832-9585 phone, 610-832-9555 fax, or serviceastm.org e-mail; or through the ASTM websitewww.astm.org. Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website www.astm.org/COPYRIGHT/.A178/A178M − 02 20124Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;

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