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ASTM A125 - 96 (2013)e1.pdf

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ASTM A125 - 96 (2013)e1.pdf

Designation A125 − 96 Reapproved 20131Standard Specification forSteel Springs, Helical, Heat-Treated1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A125; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.ε1NOTETable references were editorially corrected in November 2013.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers hot-coiled, heat-treated helicalcompression springs with tapered, closed, squared and groundends made of hot-wrought round steel bars3⁄8 in. 9.5 mm andlarger in diameter.1.2 This specification also serves to inform the user ofpractical manufacturing limits, mechanical tests, and inspec-tion requirements applicable to the type of spring described in1.1.1.3 Supplementary Requirements S1 to S8 inclusive of anoptional nature are provided. They shall apply only whenspecified by the purchaser. Details of these supplementaryrequirements shall be agreed upon by the manufacturer andpurchaser.1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regardedas standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematicalconversions to SI units that are provided for information onlyand are not considered standard.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A29/A29M Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy,Hot-Wrought, General Requirements forA689 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Bars forSpringsE10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic MaterialsE112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain SizeE709 Guide for Magnetic Particle Testing3. Ordering Information3.1 Orders for springs under this specification shall includethe following information3.1.1 Quantity,3.1.2 Name of material,3.1.3 A drawing or list showing required dimensions andloads, and part number,3.1.4 Packaging, marking and loading, and3.1.5 End use.NOTE 1A typical ordering description is 500 springs Drawing 3303Rev. A. to ASTM A125, 1095 steel, for cyclical machine operation.Palletize, maximum weight 4000 lb.4. Materials and Manufacture4.1 Material4.1.1 Unless otherwise specified, the springs shall be madeof carbon steel bars conforming to the requirements of Speci-fication A689. Due to hardenability limitations of carbon steel,it is suggested that the bar diameter be limited to 15⁄8 in. 41.8mm max in order to withstand the maximum test stressrequirements of this specification.4.1.2 If alloy steel is specified, the springs shall be madefrom alloy steel bars conforming to Specification A689.Any ofthe alloy steel grades referred to may be used at the option ofthe spring manufacturer, providing that a minimum as-quenched hardness of Rockwell HRC-50 will be achieved atthe center of the bar section representing the spring whenquenched in the same media and manner as the spring.4.1.3 Springs Made from Bars Over 2 in. 50.8 mmNotethat the bias tolerance reference Specification A29/A29M,Table A1.1 on Permissible Variations in Cross Section forHot-Wrought Round, Square, and Round-Cornered SquareBars of Steel of the bar diameter shall be taken into consid-eration when designing and calculating the solid height, springrate, solid stress, and solid capacity.4.2 Hardness4.2.1 The springs must be quenched and tempered to asufficiently high hardness strength to withstand the stresses1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.15 on Bars.Current edition approved Oct. 1, 2013. Published November 2013. Originallyapproved in 1929. Last previous edition approved in 2007 as A125 – 96 2007.DOI 10.1520/A0125-96R13E01.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1developed in testing the finished spring. The maximum hard-ness shall not exceed 477 Brinell numbers 2.80 mm indenta-tion diameter.4.2.2 When hardness limits are specified, the total range orspread may not be less than 0.15 mm difference in indentationdiameters. The specified or indicated minimum hardness mustbe sufficient to develop the required strength to withstand thesolid stresses of the spring design involved.4.2.3 Hardness shall be read on a prepared flat surface in anarea not detrimental to the life of the spring at a full sectionafter removal of the decarburized layer. A tungsten-carbide10-mm ball shall be applied under a 3000-kg load and theindentation diameter converted to Brinell numbers by usingTable 1. The values for Table 1 have been taken fromSpecification E10.4.3 Metallurgical Requirements4.3.1 The total depth of decarburization, partial plus com-plete as measured on the finished spring in the quenched andtempered condition, shall not exceed 0.006 in. 0.15 mm plus1 of the bar diameter. The decarburization shall be examinedat 100 on a test specimen suitably etched and cut from a fullcross section of the test spring showing at least one lineal inchof original bar circumference.4.3.2 The structure of the finished spring shall have anaverage ASTM Grain Size No. 5 or finer as determined by thelatest revision of Test Methods E112.4.4 End Construction4.4.1 End Construction-Tapered Squared and GroundTheend bearing surfaces of the spring shall be ground to producea firm bearing. The end bearing surfaces shall have a minimumbearing surface of two thirds of the mean coil circumferenceand a minimum width of two thirds of the hot-tapered surfaceof the bar. The tip ends of the bar shall be in approximatecontact with the adjacent coil, and shall not protrude beyondthe maximum permissible outside diameters of the spring asestablished by Table 2.4.4.1.1 End Construction Coil Blunt Squared and GroundOptionalThe end bearing surfaces of the spring shall beground to produce a firm bearing. The end bearing surfacesshall have a minimum ground bearing surface of two thirds ofthe mean coil circumference and a minimum width of twothirds of the bar diameter. The tip ends of the bar shall be inapproximate contact with the adjacent coil and shall notprotrude beyond the maximum permissible outside diametersof the spring as established by Table 2.4.4.2 Springs with ground ends having a free height-to-mean diameter ratio of not less than 1 or more than 5 shall notdeviate from the perpendicular more than the number ofdegrees prescribed in Table 3, as determined by standing thespring on its end and measuring the angular deviation of astraightedge along the outer helix from a perpendicular to theplate on which the spring is standing.4.4.3 The ends of springs shall be parallel within a toleranceof twice that specified for the squareness of ends as determinedby standing the spring on its end and measuring the maximumangular deviation of the other end from a plane parallel to theplate on which the spring is standing.5. Physical Requirements5.1 Measurements5.1.1 Solid HeightThe solid height is the perpendiculardistance between the plates of the testing machine when thespring is compressed solid with the load specified in 7.3. Thesolid height thus measured may be less, but shall not exceedthe specified nominal solid height by more than the limits givenin Table 4.5.1.2 Free HeightThe free height is the height of thespring after the load specified in 7.3 has been released, and isdetermined by placing a straightedge across the top of thespring and measuring the perpendicular distance from the plateon which the spring stands to the bottom of the straightedge atthe approximate center of the spring. Tolerances are shown inTable 5.5.1.3 Loaded HeightThe loaded height is the perpendicu-lar distance between the plates of the testing machine when thespecified working load has been applied in compression.Tolerances are shown in Table 5.5.1.4 Permanent SetAfter determining the free height asspecified in 5.1.2, the permanent set is the difference betweenthis free height and the height after the spring has beencompressed solid three additional times under the test loadspecified in 7.3, measured at the same point and in the samemanner. Tolerances are shown in Table 5.5.1.5 Uniformity of PitchThe pitch of the coils shall besufficiently uniform so that when the spring is compressedwithout lateral support to a height representing a deflection of85 of the nominal total travel, none of the coils shall be incontact with one another, excluding the inactive end coils.Under 85 deflection, the maximum spacing between any twoadjacent active coils shall not exceed 40 of the nominal freecoil spacing. The nominal free coil spacing is equivalent to thespecified total travel divided by the number of active turns.When the design is such that it cannot be compressed to solidheight without lateral support, these requirements do not apply.5.1.6 Outside DiameterThe outside diameter shall bemeasured on a spring in the free condition and across any fullturn excluding the end turns and must be taken approximatelyperpendicular to the helix axis. The tolerances are shown inTable 2.5.1.7 Calculations for Testing Loads and Stresses5.1.7.1 Solid CapacityCalculate the solid capacity of thespring as followsP 5 Gd4F/8 ND31whereTABLE 1 Brinell HardnessIndentation Diameter, mm Brinell Hardness Numbers2.75 4952.80 4772.85 4612.90 4442.95 4293.00 4153.05 4013.10 3883.15 375A125 − 96 201312G 11106psi effective torsional modulus of elasticity,d nominal bar diameter, in.,D mean coil or helix diameter, in.,F spring deflection free to solid, in.,N active turns solid height/bar diameter − 1.5, andP solid capacity, lb.5.1.7.2 Uncorrected Solid StressCalculate the uncorrectedsolid stress as follows WarningBar nominal diameter maynot be the same as the specified diameter, due to biasedtolerances on hot-rolled bars 2 in. 50.8 mm and over.S 5 8PD/3.1416 d326. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance6.1 FinishTABLE 2 Permissible Variations in Outside Diameter of HelixFor springs with D/d ratio not exceeding 8NOTE 1For design information. These permissible variations, exclusives of manufacturing taper, should be used as a guide in the design ofconcentrically-nested helical-spring units for free assembly. The diametrical clearance desired is1⁄16 in. 1.59 mm less than the sum of the applicabletolerances of the nested spring units, but in no case should it be less than1⁄8 in. 3.17 mm.NOTE 2In cases where radical clearance on existing concentrically-nested helical-spring units will not accommodate these tolerances, the nominalinside diameters shall be adhered to as closely as practicable, with plus variation on the outer springs and minus variation on the inner springs to guaranteefree assembly. Drawings must show reference to the complete nested spring units.NOTE 3For springs with D/d ratio not exceeding 8. For D/d ratio greater than 8, increase tolerance 50 .Nominal Outside Diameter, in.mmNominal Free Height or Length of Spring, in. mmUp to 10 254incl, Over 10 to 18254 to 457,incl, Over 18 to 26457 to 661,incl, Over 26 to 34661 to 874,incl, Over 34 to 42874 to 1067,incl, Over 42 to 601067 to 1524,incl, Up to 6 152, incl1⁄16 1.593⁄32 2.381⁄8 3.175⁄32 3.973⁄16 4.76 . . .Over 6 to 8 152 to 203, incl3⁄32 2.381⁄8 3.173⁄16 4.761⁄4 6.351⁄4 6.35 . . .Over 8 to 12 203 to 305, incl1⁄8 3.173⁄16 4.761⁄4 6.351⁄4 6.351⁄4 6.35 . . .Over 12 to 16 305 to 406, incl . . .1⁄4 6.351⁄4 6.351⁄4 6.351⁄4 6.355⁄16 7.94Over 16 to 20 406 to 508, incl . . . . . .5⁄16 7.945⁄16 7.945⁄16 7.943⁄8 9.53Over 20 to 24 508 to 610, incl . . . . . .3⁄8 9.533⁄8 9.533⁄8 9.537⁄16 11.00Over 24 to 28 610 to 701, incl . . . . . .7⁄167⁄167⁄161⁄2Over 28 701, incl . . . . . .1⁄21⁄21⁄21⁄2TABLE 3 Permissible Out-of-Squareness, Springs with Ground EndsTotal Travel, in. mm Mean Diameter, in. mm2 51andunderOver 2to 451 to102, inclOver 4to 6102 to152, inclOver 6to 8152 to203, inclOver 8to 10203 to254, inclOver 10to 12254 to305, inclOver 12to 14305 to356, inclOver 14to 16356 to406, inclOver 16to 18406 to457, inclOver 18to 20457 to508, inclDegree2 51 and under 11⁄4 11⁄4 1111. . . .Over 2 to 4 51 to 102, incl 13⁄4 11⁄2 11⁄4 11⁄4 1 1 1 ... ... ...Over 4 to 6 102 to 152, incl 21⁄4 13⁄4 11⁄2 11⁄4 11⁄4 1 1 ... ... ...Over 6 to 8 152 to 203, incl 21⁄2 21⁄4 13⁄4 11⁄2 11⁄4 11⁄4 1 1 ... ...Over 8 to 10 203 to 254, incl 23⁄4 21⁄2 211⁄2 11⁄2 11⁄4 11⁄4 1 ... ...Over 10 to 12 254 to 305, incl 3 23⁄4 21⁄4 13⁄4 11⁄2 11⁄2 11⁄4 11⁄4 1 ...Over 12 to 14 305 to 356, incl . . . 3 21⁄2 213⁄4 13⁄4 11⁄2 11⁄2 11⁄4 11⁄4Over 14 to 16 356 to 406, incl . . . . . . 23⁄4 21⁄4 223⁄4 13⁄4 11⁄2 11⁄2Over 16 to 18 406 to 457, incl . . . . . . 3 21⁄2 21⁄4 223⁄4 13⁄4 11⁄2Over 18 to 20 457 to 508, incl . . . . . . 3 23⁄4 21⁄2 21⁄4 21⁄4 223⁄4Over 20 to 22 508 to 559, incl . . . . . . . . . 3 23⁄4 21⁄4 21⁄4 13⁄4Over 22 to 24 559 to 610, incl . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 21⁄4 21⁄4 223⁄4Over 24 to 26 610 to 660, incl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21⁄2 21⁄2 21⁄4 21⁄4 2Over 26 to 28 660 to 701, incl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21⁄2 21⁄2 21⁄4 21⁄4 2Over 28 to 30 702 to 762, incl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23⁄4 21⁄2 21⁄4 21⁄4 2Over 30 to 32 762 to 813, incl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23⁄4 23⁄4 21⁄2 21⁄2 ...Over 32 to 34 813 to 864, incl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23⁄4 23⁄4 21⁄2 21⁄2 ...Over 34 to 38 864 to 914, incl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 23⁄4 23⁄4 23⁄4 ...Over 36 to 38 914 to 965, incl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 23⁄4 23⁄4 ...Over 38 to 42 965 to 1016, incl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 . . .TABLE 4 Permissible Variations in Solid HeightNominal Solid Height, in. mm Deviation Above Nominal SolidHeight, max, in.AmmUp to 7 178, incl1⁄16 1.59Over 7 to 10 178 to 254, incl3⁄32 2.38Over 10 to 13 254 to 330, incl1⁄8 3.17Over 13 to 16 330 to 406, incl5⁄32 3.97Over 16 to 19 406 to 483, incl3⁄16 4.76Over 19 to 22 483 to 559, incl7⁄32 5.56Over 22 to 25 559 to 635, incl1⁄4 6.35Over 25 to 28 635 to 711, incl9⁄32 7.14Over 28 to 31 711 to 787, incl5⁄16 7.94AFor additional 3-in. 76-mm increase in solid height, the deviation shown shouldbe increased by1⁄32 in. 0.79 mm.A125 − 96 2013136.1.1 The surface of the spring shall be as furnished in thequenched and tempered condition.6.1.2 The surface of the springs shall be free of injuriousdefects within the normal limitation of hot-coiled springs.7. Sampling and Conduc

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