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ASTM A1086 - 13.pdf

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ASTM A1086 - 13.pdf

Designation A1086 − 13Standard Specification forThin-Gauge Nonoriented Electrical Steel Fully ProcessedTypes1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1086; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers the detailed requirements towhich flat-rolled thin-gauge nonoriented fully processed elec-trical steel shall conform. Nominal thicknesses included in thisspecification are 0.004 in. 0.10 mm to 0.012 in. 0.30 mm.1.1.1 Refer to Specification A677 for properties of flat-rolled nonoriented fully processed electrical steel in nominalthicknesses of 0.014 in. 0.36 mm to 0.025 in. 0.64 mm.1.1.2 Refer to Specification A876 for properties of flat-rolled grain-oriented fully processed electrical steel.1.1.3 Thin-gauge nonoriented electrical steels with a highsilicon content typically 6 manufactured using siliconvapor-deposition or similar processes are not included in thisspecification.1.2 The steel covered in this specification is produced tospecified maximum core loss values and is intended primarilyfor use in rotating electrical machinery and other electromag-netic devices operating at moderate to elevated frequencies100 Hz and greater. Desirable core loss and permeabilitycharacteristics are developed during mill processing; however,lamination manufacturing processes may adversely affect thesemill-produced properties. Additional stress-relief heat treat-ment by the user may therefore be helpful in remediating theseproperties in the manufactured laminations. Stress-relief an-nealing is discussed further in Appendix X2.1.3 These thin-gauge nonoriented fully processed electricalsteels are low-carbon, silicon-iron, or silicon-aluminum-ironalloys typically containing 2.5 to 3.5 silicon and a smallamount of aluminum.1.4 The values stated in customary cgs-emu and inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values givenin parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units whichare provided for information only and are not consideredstandard.1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A34/A34M Practice for Sampling and Procurement Testingof Magnetic MaterialsA340 Terminology of Symbols and Definitions Relating toMagnetic TestingA343/A343M Test Method for Alternating-Current Mag-netic Properties of Materials at Power Frequencies UsingWattmeter-Ammeter-Voltmeter Method and 25-cm Ep-stein Test FrameA348/A348M Test Method forAlternating Current MagneticProperties of Materials Using the Wattmeter-Ammeter-Voltmeter Method, 100 to 10 000 Hz and 25-cm EpsteinFrameA664 Practice for Identification of Standard Electrical SteelGrades in ASTM SpecificationsA677 Specification for Nonoriented Electrical Steel FullyProcessed TypesA700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Meth-ods for Steel Products for ShipmentA717/A717M Test Method for Surface Insulation Resistivityof Single-Strip SpecimensA719/A719M Test Method for Lamination Factor of Mag-netic MaterialsA876 Specification for Flat-Rolled, Grain-Oriented, Silicon-Iron, Electrical Steel, Fully Processed TypesA927/A927M Test Method for Alternating-Current Mag-netic Properties of Toroidal Core Specimens Using theVoltmeter-Ammeter-Wattmeter MethodA937/A937M Test Method for Determining InterlaminarResistance of Insulating Coatings Using Two AdjacentTest SurfacesA971/A971M Test Method for Measuring Edge Taper andCrown of Flat-Rolled Electrical Steel Coils1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A06 onMagnetic Properties and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A06.02 onMaterial Specifications.Current edition approved Aug. 1, 2013. Published August 2013. DOI 10.1520/A1086–13.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1A976 Classification of Insulating Coatings for ElectricalSteels by Composition, Relative Insulating Ability andApplicationE18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Ma-terialsE384 Test Method for Knoop and Vickers Hardness ofMaterials3. Terminology3.1 DefinitionsSee Terminology A340.4. Classification4.1 The thin-gauge nonoriented electrical steel types de-scribed by this specification are as shown in Table 1.5. Ordering Information5.1 Orders for material under this specification shall includeas much of the following information as necessary to describethe desired material adequately5.1.1 ASTM specification number.5.1.2 Core-loss type designation.5.1.3 Surface coating type.5.1.4 Thickness, width, and length if in cut lengths insteadof coils.5.1.5 Total weight of ordered item.5.1.6 Limitations in coil size or lift weights.5.1.7 End UseThe user shall disclose as much pertinentinformation as possible about the intended application toenable the producer to provide material characteristics mostsuitable for specific fabricating practices.5.1.8 Special requirements or exceptions to the provisionsof this specification shall be negotiated between the user andthe producer.6. Manufacture6.1 Typical Melting and Casting6.1.1 These thin-gauge fully processed nonoriented electri-cal steels may be made by basic-oxygen, electric-furnace, orother steel making practices.6.1.2 These thin-gauge fully processed nonoriented electri-cal steels are characterized by low carbon content, usually lessthan 0.02 . The principal alloying element is commonlysilicon, but aluminum up to about 0.8 is sometimes usedinstead of or in addition to silicon, depending on mill-processing practice for the desired magnetic grade. Individualproducers will often have different silicon or aluminum con-tents for a particular grade because of intrinsic mill processingprocedures.6.1.3 Additional alloying elements that may be presentdepending on mill processing procedures include sulfur, typi-cally less than 0.025 , manganese in amounts between 0.10and 0.40 , and phosphorus, copper, nickel, chromium,molybdenum, antimony, and tin in residual amounts.6.1.4 The producer is not required to report the chemicalcomposition of each lot except when a clear need for suchinformation has been shown. In such cases, the information tobe reported shall be negotiated between the producer and theuser.6.2 Typical Rolling and AnnealingThe processing se-quence for thin-gauge fully processed, nonoriented electricalsteel comprises hot-rolling, annealing, pickling, cold-rolling,and decarburizing annealing.6.2.1 Commercial RerollingWhen commercial practicecalls for the cold-rolling to finished thickness and the devel-opment of the final annealed and coated condition to take placeat a production facility other than the original melting andhot-rolling mill, this rerolling facility should prepare final testdata and certifications as well as package and ship the finishedmaterial to the user in accordance with the requirements forproducers stated in this standard.6.3 When changes in the manufacture of the material arebelieved to exert possible significant effects upon the user’sfabricating practices and upon the magnetic performance to beobtained in the specified end use, the producer shall notify theuser before shipment is made so the user has an opportunity toevaluate the effects.7. Magnetic Properties7.1 Specific Core LossEach core-loss type of electricalsteel is identified by the maximum core loss requirements asshown in Table 1.7.2 PermeabilityThe permeability at all magnetic fluxdensity levels shall be as high as possible, consistent with therequired core loss limits that govern the grade. Typical relativepeak permeability p values are given in Appendix X1.7.3 Minimum Magnetic Flux DensityThe minimum mag-netic flux density of materials at specified magnetic fieldstrengths is frequently useful to the user. Typical values ofminimum magnetic flux density are given in Appendix X1.7.4 Magnetic AgingAlthough steel sold to this specifica-tion is considered non-aging, the maximum core loss values ofTable 1 are based on tests of freshly sheared specimens. Theguarantee of magnetic properties after an aging treatment issubject to negotiation between the user and the producer. Thedefinition of aging coefficient and the aging treatments usuallyspecified are given in Terminology A340.TABLE 1 Core-Loss TypesAand Maximum Specific Core LossesBat a Magnetic Flux Density of 10 kG 1.0 T for As-ShearedEpstein SpecimensCThicknessin. mmCore-Loss TypeMaximum Core Lossat 400 HzW/lb W/kgMaximum Core Lossat 1000 HzW/lb W/kg0.004 0.10 10T590 5.90 13.0 12.0 26.40.005 0.12 12T610 6.10 13.5 15.3 33.70.006 0.15 15T640 6.40 14.0 17.4 38.30.007 0.18 18T650 6.50 14.4 19.5 43.00.008 0.20 20T680 6.80 15.0 22.4 49.40.009 0.22 22T700 7.00 15.4 25.0 55.10.010 0.25 25T730 7.30 16.0 28.0 61.70.011 0.27 27T770 7.70 17.0 30.2 66.60.012 0.30 30T820 8.20 18.0 32.8 72.3ASee Practice A664BThe test density shall be the correct ASTM assumed density in accordance with13.2 for the chemistry used by the producer to meet the property requirements ofthe specification.COne half of strips cut parallel to the steel rolling direction, one half of strips cutperpendicular to the steel rolling direction. Refer to Section 13 for applicable testmethods.A1086 − 1328. Surface Insulation Characteristics8.1 Unless otherwise specified, thin-gauge fully processednonoriented electrical steels are supplied with a smooth surfacefinish and a thin, tightly adherent surface oxide coating typeC-0 in Classification A976 which has sufficient insulatingability for many small cores.8.2 Applied Coatings8.2.1 Several types of thin, tightly adherent applied coatingswith higher levels of insulating ability, including coating typeC-5 in Classification A976 as well as other standard andproprietary coating types are available on thin-gauge fullyprocessed nonoriented electrical steels. If an applied coating isneeded, the user shall specify the coating type.8.2.2 If the insulating ability of the applied coating isunusually critical to the application, the user shall specify notonly the coating type, but also the test method either TestMethod A717/A717M or Test Method A937/A937M and testconditions to be used to evaluate the insulating ability of thecoating as well as the corresponding minimum value ofinsulating ability.8.2.3 A thinner than usual applied coating may be preferredwhen the core fabricating practice involves welding or diecasting. In such cases the coating type and characteristics shallbe determined by agreement of the user and producer.9. Mechanical Requirements9.1 Lamination FactorThe lamination factor shall be ashigh as practicable. It is greatest for thicker gages and when thesurface is smooth, uncoated and without significant amounts ofoxide. Lamination factors can be determined using TestMethod A719/A719M. Typical values of lamination factor aregiven in Appendix X1.9.2 HardnessThe hardness of these materials can bedetermined using Test Methods E18 or Test Method E384.Hardness is affected by chemistry and by the grain size andmicrostructure of the final product and may differ betweenproducers. If tests for hardness are to be included with aproduction order, the test method or methods to be used andacceptable hardness values shall be negotiated between theuser and the producer.10. Dimensions and Permissible Variations10.1 ThicknessNominal thicknesses of each core-loss typeare shown in Table 2.10.2 Thickness VariationsThe average thickness of thematerial supplied shall be as close as possible to the orderedthickness. Measurements made with a contacting micrometerat points no closer than 0.375 in. 0.95 mm from the edge ofa sheet or coil of specified width shall not differ from thespecified thickness by more than the values which includetaper shown in Table 2.10.3 TaperThe rolling of flat-rolled sheets inherentlyproduces an edge which is thinner than the rest of the sheet.This characteristic is termed “tapered edge,” “feather,” orgamma and occurs primarily within 1 to 2 in. 25 to 51 mmfrom the as-rolled edge of the material. The thickness variationinvolved in edge taper sometimes is the major portion of thetotal overall thickness variation permitted by 10.2. Edge taperis defined and may be measured in accordance with TestMethod A971/A971M; allowable taper as measured along astraight line perpendicular to the mill edge within the first 2 in.51 mm or less from either edge of the ordered width ispresented in Table 3. It may be expected that the followinglimits on the differences in thickness measured will apply.TABLE 2 Thickness TolerancesCore-Loss TypeNominal Thicknessin. mmThickness Tolerancein. mm10T590 0.004 0.10 0.0003 0.00812T610 0.005 0.12 0.0004 0.01015T640 0.006 0.15 0.0005 0.01318T650 0.007 0.18 0.0005 0.01320T680 0.008 0.20 0.0006 0.01522T700 0.009 0.22 0.0007 0.01825T730 0.010 0.25 0.0008 0.02027T770 0.011 0.27 0.0009 0.02330T820 0.012 0.30 0.0012 0.030TABLE 3 Maximum TaperCore-Loss TypeNominal Thicknessin. mmMaximum Taperin. mm10T590 0.004 0.10 0.0003 0.00812T610 0.005 0.12 0.0003 0.00815T640 0.006 0.15 0.0004 0.01018T650 0.007 0.18 0.0005 0.01320T680 0.008 0.20 0.0005 0.01322T700 0.009 0.22 0.0006 0.01525T730 0.010 0.25 0.0007 0.01827T770 0.011 0.27 0.0007 0.01830T820 0.012 0.30 0.0008 0.0210.4 Width TolerancesMaximum deviations from the or-dered width shall be as shown in Table 4.Allowable deviationsfor widths ˃40 in. 1.0 m shall be negotiated between theproducer and the user.10.5 Length TolerancesThe maximum deviations fromthe ordered length shall be as shown in Table 5. Allowabledeviations for lengths ˃120 in. 3.1 m shall be negotiatedbetween the producer and the user.10.6 CamberCamber is the greatest deviation of a sideedge from a straight line, the measurement being taken on theconcave side with a straightedge. It is limited to 0.25 in. 6.4mm per 96 in. 2.4 m of length.10.7 Out of SquareThis tolerance applies to cut lengthsonly and represents the deviation of an edge from a straight lineplaced at a right angle to the side, touching one corner andextending to the other side. It shall not exceed 0.063 in. 1.6mm per 6 in. 152 mm of width or f

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