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ASTM A1084 - 15a.pdf

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ASTM A1084 - 15a.pdf

Designation A1084 − 15aStandard Test Method forDetecting Detrimental Phases in Lean Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1084; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope*1.1 The purpose of this test method is to allow detection ofthe presence of detrimental chromium-containing phases inselected lean duplex stainless steels to the extent that toughnessor corrosion resistance is affected significantly. Such phasescan form during manufacture and fabrication of lean duplexproducts. This test method does not necessarily detect losses oftoughness nor corrosion resistance attributable to other causes,nor will it identify the exact type of detrimental phases thatcaused any loss of toughness or corrosion resistance. The testresult is a simple pass/fail statement.1.2 Lean duplex austenitic-ferritic stainless steels are typi-cally duplex stainless steels composed of 30 to 70 ferritecontent with a typical alloy composition having Cr 17 andMo 1 and with additions of Nickel, Manganese, Nitrogenand controlled low carbon content as well as other alloyingelements. This standard test method applies only to thosealloys listed in Table 1. Similar test methods for some higheralloyed duplex stainless steels are described in Test MethodsA923, but the procedures described in this standard differsignificantly for all three methods from the ones described inTest Methods A923.1.3 Lean duplex stainless steels are susceptible to theformation of detrimental chromium-containing compoundssuch as nitrides and carbides and other undesirable phases.Typically this occurs during exposures in the temperature rangefrom approximately 300 to 955C 570 to 1750F with amaximum susceptibility in the temperature range around 650 to750C 1200 to 1385F. The speed of these precipitationreactions is a function of composition and the thermal orthermo-mechanical history of each individual piece. The pres-ence of an amount of these phases can be detrimental totoughness and corrosion resistance.1.4 Because of the low molybdenum content, lean duplexstainless steels only exhibit a minor susceptibility to sigma orother types of molybdenum containing intermetallic phases.Heat treatment, that could lead to formation of small amountsof molybdenum containing intermetallics, would result in alarge amount of precipitation of detrimental nitrides orcarbides, long before any signs of sigma and similar phaseswould be observed.1.5 Correct heat treatment of lean duplex stainless steels caneliminate or reduce the amount and alter the characteristics ofthese detrimental phases as well as minimizing Cr-depletion inthe matrix phase in the immediate vicinity of these phases.Adequately rapid cooling of the product from a suitableannealing temperature provides the maximum resistance toformation of detrimental phases by subsequent thermal expo-sures. For details of the proper annealing temperature recom-mendations for the alloy and product in question, the user isreferred to the relevant applicableASTM product specification.1.6 Compliance with the chemical and mechanical require-ments for the applicable product specification does not neces-sarily indicate the absence of detrimental phases in the product.1.7 These test methods include the following1.7.1 Test Method AEtch Method for detecting the pres-ence of potentially detrimental phases in Lean Duplex StainlessSteels1.7.2 Test Method BCharpy V-notch Impact Test fordetermining the presence of detrimental phases in Lean DuplexStainless Steels.1.7.3 Test Method CInhibited Ferric Chloride CorrosionTest for determining the presence of detrimental phases in LeanDuplex Stainless Steels.1.7.4 Examples of the correlation of thermal exposures, theoccurrence of detrimental phases, and the degradation oftoughness and corrosion resistance are given in Appendix X2,Appendix X3, and the References.1.8 Guidelines for the required data needed for subcommit-tee A01.14 to consider listing a lean duplex stainless steel inthis standard test method are given in Annex A1.1.9 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded asstandard. The values given in parentheses are mathematicalconversions to other units that are provided for informationonly and are not considered standard.1This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.14 on Methods of Corrosion Testing.Current edition approved Sept. 1, 2015. Published September 2015. Originallyapproved in 2013. Last previous edition approved in 2015 as A1084 – 15. DOI10.1520/A1084 – 15A.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States11.10 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA923 Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental IntermetallicPhase in Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless SteelsA1084 Test Method for Detecting Detrimental Phases inLean Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless SteelsE6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical TestingE23 Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Me-tallic MaterialsG15 Terminology Relating to Corrosion and Corrosion Test-ing Withdrawn 20103G48 Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resis-tance of Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by Use ofFerric Chloride Solution3. Terminology3.1 Definitions3.1.1 The terminology used herein, if not specifically de-fined otherwise, shall be in accordance with Terminology E6and G15. Definitions provided herein and not given in Termi-nology E6 or in G15 are limited only to this standard.4. Significance and Use4.1 Test Method A shall only be used to supplement theresults of Test Methods B and C. It shall not be used as arejection criterion, nor shall it be used as an acceptancecriterion. Test Methods B and C are intended to be theprocedures giving the acceptance criteria for this standard.4.2 Test MethodAcan reveal potentially detrimental phasesin the metallographic structure. As the precipitated detrimentalphases can be very small, this test demands high proficiencyfrom the metallographer, especially for thinner material.4.3 The presence of detrimental phases is readily detectedby Test Methods B and C provided that a sample of appropriatelocation and orientation is selected.4.4 The tests do not determine the precise nature of thedetrimental phase but rather the presence or absence to theextent that the normally expected toughness and corrosionresistance of the material are significantly affected.4.5 This standard covers testing of samples taken from coil,coil- and plate mill plate, sheet, tubing, piping, bar anddeformed bar, though some of these products might not besuitable for testing according to Method B see Test Method Bfor further details. Other product forms have thus far not beensufficiently tested and documented to be an integral part of thisstandard, though the standard does not prohibit testing of theseproduct forms according to the three test methods. For theseother product forms, this standard gives only limited andnon-exhaustive guidance as to interpretation of result andassociated acceptance criteria.4.6 Testing on product forms outside the present scope ofthis standard shall be agreed between purchaser and supplier.5. Sampling, Test Specimens, and Test Units5.1 Sampling5.1.1 Because the occurrence of detrimental phases is afunction of temperature and cooling rate, it is essential that thetests be applied to the region of the material experiencing theconditions most likely to promote the formation of detrimentalphases. In the case of common heat treatment, this region canbe that which cooled most slowly or undergoes extremely rapidcooling.5.1.2 For practical purposes, it is considered sufficient thatthe sampling location for flat mill products be from a locationthat is at least twice the material thickness from the as-heatededges.5.1.3 Purchaser and supplier may agree on more detailedrules regarding the sampling location.5.1.4 The number of samples as well as frequency ofsampling shall be agreed between purchaser and supplier of thematerial.5.2 Test Specimens and Test Units5.2.1 Details of test specimen and test unit requirements arelisted together with each of the Test Methods A, B and C.TEST METHOD AETCH METHOD FOREVALUATION OF THE PRESENCE OFPOTENTIALLY DETRIMENTAL PHASES IN LEANDUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS6. Introduction6.1 The etch test in this standard shall only be used forexploratory purposes. The reason for this is the small size ofthe detrimental phases typically occurring in lean duplexstainless steels and the difficulty in achieving a fully reproduc-ible etch structure, which depends on factors such as specimensize and geometry, etching current and potential, compositionof the lean duplex as well as the amount and type ofdetrimental phases present. The test method contained in thisstandard is, however, the best known metallographic procedureto show the appearance and approximate amount of detrimentalphases in a lean duplex stainless steel.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced onwww.astm.org.TABLE 1 List of Lean Duplex Grades Covered by This StandardGradesUNS S32101UNS S32304UNS S32202UNS S82011A1084 − 15a26.2 As there is no formal test result from the metallographicetch method, the actual test method is attached to this standardas Appendix X1.TEST METHOD BCHARPY V-NOTCH IMPACTTEST FOR DETERMINATION OF THE PRESENCEOF DETRIMENTAL PHASES IN LEAN DUPLEXSTAINLESS STEELS7. Scope7.1 This test method describes the procedure for conductingthe Charpy V-notch impact test as a method of detecting theprecipitation of detrimental phases in lean duplex stainlesssteels. The presence or absence of an indication of a detrimen-tal phase in this test is not necessarily a measure of perfor-mance of the material in service with regard to any propertyother than that measured directly. The Charpy V-notch proce-dure as applied here is different from that commonly appliedfor the determination of toughness and shall not be used whencharacterization of material toughness is the purpose of thetesting.8. Significance and Use Test Method B8.1 The Charpy V-notch impact test may be used to evaluatemill products, provided that it is possible to obtain a specimenof the proper size from a relevant location.8.2 Charpy V-notch impact toughness of a material isaffected by factors other than the presence and absence ofdetrimental phases. These factors are known to include differ-ent compositions, even when the material is in fully annealedcondition; small and otherwise acceptable variations inaustenite/ferrite balance; and the lamellar distance betweenphases.Testing transverse and longitudinal test specimens frommill products can also give different absolute levels of impacttoughness.8.3 Table 2 indicates the applicability and acceptance crite-ria for Test Method B. These acceptance criteria have beenshown to allow for the natural variation of impact toughness insound material tested in the transverse direction on plate and inthe longitudinal direction on bar and deformed bar, while stillbeing able to identify whether detrimental amounts of unde-sirable phases are present.8.4 Acceptance criteria forTest Method B for other productsincluding mill welded pipe, weldments and weld metal are notpresently covered by this standard, though purchaser andsupplier may agree upon an acceptance criteria see Note 1.Note that the results of weldment testing will depend on thefiller metal or weld deposit chemistry.8.5 Acceptance criteria of sub-size specimens are not cov-ered by this standard, though purchaser and supplier may agreeupon a proper conversion factor of the given acceptancecriteria in Table 2. Conversion factors generally vary byproduct type and dimensions of product for which the sub-sizespecimen sampling is needed see Note 2.NOTE 1As no data has been presented to subcommittee A01.14 forwelded mill products or other products, no recommendation can be givenas to the acceptance criteria for these products. Any acceptance criteriaand other details of the test should be supported with data from apre-qualification test in line with the minimum requirements of AnnexA1in this standard.NOTE 2As stated in Test Methods and Definitions A370, AppendixA5.3.3 and Test Methods E23, Appendix X1.3, there is no generalcorrelation between impact values obtained with specimens of differentsize or shape. However, limited correlations may be established forspecification purposes on the basis of special studies of particularmaterials and particular specimens. It is commonly seen that the conver-sion factor is set directly proportional to the ratio between standard andsub-size specimen fracture surface area or a percentage thereof, thoughwhether this is an acceptable way forward to still be able to identify thepresence or absence of detrimental phases needs to be documented.9. Apparatus9.1 The test apparatus shall be as described in Test Methodsand Definitions A370.10. Test Specimens10.1 General Requirements All Products10.1.1 The test specimen shall be as described in TestMethods and Definitions A370.10.1.2 An impact test for the purpose of detecting detrimen-tal phases shall consist of a single specimen taken from theproduct piece or lot to be represented.10.1.3 Provided purchaser and supplier have agreed upon aproper acceptance criterion, sub-size specimens may be usedfor products with thickness less than that of full-size CharpyV-notch specimen. Required energy for sub-size specimensshall be established and agreed upon based on the specificproduct type and geometry in question.10.2 Flat Products Sheet, Coil, Plate10.2.1 The specimen shall be prepared in the transversedirection. The notch shall be perpendicular to the major rolledsurface.10.3 Non-deformed bar products10.3.1 The specimen shall be prepared in the longitudinaldirection.10.4 Deformed Bar Products10.4.1 The specimen shall be prepared in the longitudinaldirection.10.5 Other Produc

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