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ASTM A1058 - 14.pdf

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ASTM A1058 - 14.pdf

Designation A1058 − 14 An American National StandardStandard Test Methods forMechanical Testing of Steel ProductsMetric1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1058; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope*1.1 These test methods cover mechanical tests described inASTM, EN,2ISO,3and JIS4standards that utilize the SI systemof units. The test methods in each system are not exactequivalents. Each standards system ASTM, EN, ISO, and JISshall be used independently of the other. Combining require-ments from any two or more systems may result in noncon-formance with the purchase order.1.2 These test methods cover procedures for the mechanicaltesting of steels, stainless steels, and related alloys. The variousmechanical tests herein described are used to determine prop-erties required in the product specifications. Variations intesting methods are to be avoided, and standard methods oftesting are to be followed to obtain reproducible and compa-rable results. In those cases in which the testing requirementsfor certain products are unique or at variance with these generalprocedures, the product specification testing requirements shallcontrol.1.3 Only one of the testing procedure tracks shall befollowed ASTM, EN, ISO, or JIS. When a test method orpractice is not available in one of the tracks then an appropriatetest method or practice from an alternative track shall be used.The respective tests are listed in the column shown in Table 1.NOTE 1The test methods in each system are not exact equivalents.1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded asstandard. No other units of measurement are included in thisstandard.1.5 Attention is directed to Practice ISO 17025 when theremay be a need for information on criteria for evaluation oftesting laboratories.1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards5A833 Practice for Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materi-als by Comparison Hardness TestersA956 Test Method for Leeb Hardness Testing of SteelProductsA1038 Test Method for Portable Hardness Testing by theUltrasonic Contact Impedance MethodE8/E8M Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Ma-terialsE10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic MaterialsE18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Ma-terialsE23 Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Me-tallic MaterialsE29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data toDetermine Conformance with SpecificationsE110 Test Method for Rockwell and Brinell Hardness ofMetallic Materials by Portable Hardness TestersE190 Test Method for Guided Bend Test for Ductility ofWeldsE290 Test Methods for Bend Testing of Material for Ductil-ity2.2 Other DocumentsASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Divi-sion I6ISO 148-1 Metallic MaterialsCharpy Pendulum ImpactTestPart 1 Test Method7ISO 148-2 Metallic MaterialsCharpy Pendulum Impact1These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 onSteel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and are the direct responsibility ofSubcommittee A01.13 on Mechanical and Chemical Testing and ProcessingMethods of Steel Products and Processes.Current edition approved May 15, 2014. Published June 2014. Originallyapproved in 2008. Last previous edition approved in 2012 as A1058 –12b. DOI10.1520/A1058-14.2Available from British Standards Institute BSI, 389 Chiswick High Rd.,London W4 4AL, U.K., http//www.bsi-global.com.3Available from International Organization for Standardization, 1 rue deVaremb, Case postale, CH-1211, Genve 20, Switzerland, http//www.iso.org.4Available from Japanese Standards Association, 4-1-24, Akasaka, Minato-ku,Tokyo, 107-8440, Japan, http//www.jsa.or.jp.5For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.6Available from American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASMEInternational, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990, USA, http//www.asme.org.7These standards are also designed EN ISO this identifies the adoption of ISOstandards by EN. “EN ISO” is part of the designation.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;TestPart 2 Verification of Test Machines7ISO 2566-1 SteelConversion of Elongation ValuesPart1 Carbon and Low Alloy Steels7ISO 2566-2 SteelConversion of Elongation ValuesPart2 Austenitic Steels7ISO 6506-1 Metallic MaterialsBrinell Hardness TestPart 1 Test Method7ISO 6508-1 Metallic MaterialsRockwell Hardness TestPart 1 Test Method Scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N,T7ISO 6892-1 Metallic MaterialsTensile Testing at AmbientTemperature7ISO 7438 Metallic MaterialsBend Test7ISO 8491 Metallic MaterialsTube in Full SectionBend Test7ISO 17025 General Requirements for the Competence ofTesting and Calibration Laboratories7JIS B 7722 Charpy Pendulum Impact TestVerification ofTesting MachinesJIS Z 2201 Test Pieces forTensileTest for Metallic MaterialsJIS Z 2241 Method of Tensile Test for Metallic MaterialsJIS Z 2242 Method of Charpy Pendulum Impact Test forMetallic MaterialsJIS Z 2243 Brinell Hardness TestTest MethodJIS Z 2245 Rockwell Hardness TestTest MethodJIS Z 2248 Method of Bend Test for Metallic Materials3. General Precautions3.1 The ASTM track is the default track; if other than theASTM track is used that track shall be reported.3.2 Certain methods of fabrication, such as bending,forming, and welding, or operations involving heating, mayaffect the properties of the material under test. Therefore, theproduct specifications cover the stage of manufacture at whichmechanical testing is to be performed. The properties shown bytesting prior to fabrication may not necessarily be representa-tive of the product after it has been completely fabricated.3.3 Improper machining or preparation of test specimensmay give erroneous results. Care should be exercised to assuregood workmanship in machining. Improperly machined speci-mens should be discarded and other specimens substituted.3.4 Flaws in the specimen may also affect results. If any testspecimen develops flaws, the retest provision of the applicableproduct specification shall govern.3.5 If any test specimen fails because of mechanical reasonssuch as failure of testing equipment or improper specimenpreparation, it may be discarded and another specimen taken.4. Orientation of Test Specimens4.1 The terms “longitudinal test” and “transverse test” areused only in material specifications for wrought products andare not applicable to castings. When such reference is made toa test coupon or test specimen, the following definitions apply4.1.1 Longitudinal Test, unless specifically definedotherwise, signifies that the lengthwise axis of the specimen isparallel to the direction of the greatest extension of the steelduring rolling or forging. The stress applied to a longitudinaltension test specimen is in the direction of the greatestextension, and the axis of the fold of a longitudinal bend testspecimen is at right angles to the direction of greatest exten-sion.4.1.2 Transverse Test, unless specifically defined otherwise,signifies that the lengthwise axis of the specimen is at rightangles to the direction of the greatest extension of the steelduring rolling or forging. The stress applied to a transversetension test specimen is at right angles to the greatestextension, and the axis of the fold of a transverse bend testspecimen is parallel to the greatest extension.4.2 The terms “radial test” and “tangential test” are used inmaterial specifications for some wrought circular products andare not applicable to castings. When such reference is made toa test coupon or test specimen, the following definitions apply4.2.1 Radial Test, unless specifically defined otherwise,signifies that the lengthwise axis of the specimen is perpen-dicular to the axis of the product and coincident with one of theradii of a circle drawn with a point on the axis of the productas a center.4.2.2 Tangential Test, unless specifically defined otherwise,signifies that the lengthwise axis of the specimen is perpen-dicular to a plane containing the axis of the product and tangentto a circle drawn with a point on the axis of the product as acenter.TENSION TEST5. Description5.1 The tension test related to the mechanical testing of steelproducts subjects a machined or full-section specimen of thematerial under examination to a measured load sufficient tocause rupture. The resulting properties sought are defined inTest Methods E8/E8M, ISO 6892-1, or JIS Z 2241 as appli-cable.5.2 In general, the testing equipment and methods are givenin Test Methods E8/E8M, ISO 6892-1 and JIS Z 2241.However, there are certain exceptions to these practices; theseexceptions are covered in this standard.TABLE 1 Tests and Applicable StandardsTest Sections ASTM EN ISO JISTension 5 to 12 E8/E8M 10002-1 6892-1 Z 2241Bend 13 E190 7438A7438 Z 2248E290Bendtube13 { 10232 8491 {Hardness 14Brinell 15 E10 6506-1A6506-1 Z 2243Rockwell 16 E18 6508-1A6508-1 Z 2245Portable 17 A833 {{ {E110A1038Impact 18 to 26 E23 148-1A148-1 Z 2242Keywords 27 {{{{AThese standards are designated EN ISO; this identifies the adoption of ISOstandards by EN. “EN ISO” is part of the designation.A1058 − 142Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;6. Testing Apparatus and Operations6.1 Loading SystemsThere are two general types of load-ing systems, mechanical screw power and hydraulic. Thesediffer chiefly in the variability of the rate of load application.The older screw power machines are limited to a small numberof fixed free running crosshead speeds. Some modern screwpower machines, and all hydraulic machines permit steplessvariation throughout the range of speeds.6.2 The tension testing machine shall be maintained in goodoperating condition, used only in the proper loading range, andcalibrated periodically in accordance with the latest revision ofthe appropriate practices.NOTE 2Many machines are equipped with stress-strain recorders forautographic plotting of stress-strain curves. It should be noted that somerecorders have a load measuring component entirely separate from theload indicator of the testing machine. Such recorders are calibratedseparately.6.3 LoadingIt is the function of the gripping or holdingdevice of the testing machine to transmit the load from theheads of the machine to the specimen under test. The essentialrequirement is that the load shall be transmitted axially. Thisimplies that the centers of the action of the grips shall be inalignment, insofar as practicable, with the axis of the specimenat the beginning and during the test and that bending andtwisting be held to a minimum.6.4 Speed of TestingThe speed of testing shall not begreater than that at which load and strain readings can be madeaccurately. In production testing, speed of testing is commonlyexpressed 1 in terms of free running crosshead speed rate ofmovement of the crosshead of the testing machine when notunder load, or 2 in terms of rate of separation of the twoheads of the testing machine under load, or 3 in terms of rateof stressing the specimen, or 4 in terms of rate of straining thespecimen. The following limitations on the speed of testing arerecommended as adequate for most steel productsNOTE 3Tension tests using closed-loop machines with feedbackcontrol of rate should not be performed using load control, as this modeof testing will result in acceleration of the crosshead upon yielding andelevation of the measured yield strength.6.4.1 Any convenient speed of testing may be used up toone half the specified yield point or yield strength. When thispoint is reached, the free-running rate of separation of thecrossheads shall be adjusted so as not to exceed 0.025 mm persecond per 25 mm of reduced section, or the distance betweenthe grips for test specimens not having reduced sections. Thisspeed shall be maintained through the yield point or yieldstrength. In determining the tensile strength, the free-runningrate of separation of the heads shall not exceed 13 mm per minper 25 mm of reduced section, or the distance between thegrips for test specimens not having reduced sections. In anyevent, the minimum speed of testing shall not be less than1⁄10the specified maximum rates for determining yield point oryield strength and tensile strength.6.4.2 It shall be permissible to set the speed of the testingmachine by adjusting the free running crosshead speed to theabove specified values, inasmuch as the rate of separation ofheads under load at these machine settings is less than thespecified values of free running crosshead speed.6.4.3 As an alternative, if the machine is equipped with adevice to indicate the rate of loading, the speed of the machinefrom half the specified yield point or yield strength through theyield point or yield strength may be adjusted so that the rate ofstressing does not exceed 11 MPa per second. However, theminimum rate of stressing shall not be less than 1 MPa persecond.7. Test Specimen Parameters7.1 SelectionTest coupons shall be selected in accordancewith the applicable product specifications.7.2 Size and TolerancesTest specimen dimensions andtolerances shall comply with the requirements of the relevantstandards.7.3 Procurement of Test SpecimensSpecimens shall beprepared from portions of the material. They are usuallymachined so as to have a reduced cross section at mid-lengthin order to obtain uniform distribution of the stress over thecross section and to localize the zone of fracture. Care shall betaken to remove by machining all distorted, cold-worked, orheat-affected areas from the edges of the section used inevaluating the test.7.4 Aging of Test SpecimensUnless otherwise specified, itshall be permissible to age tension test specimens. The time-temperature cycle employed must be such that the effects ofprevious processing will not be materially changed. It may beaccomplished by aging at room temperature 24 to 48 h, or inshorter time at moderately elevated temperatures by boiling inwater, heating in oil or in an oven.7.5 Measurement of Dimensions of Test SpecimensTestspecimens shall be measured in accordance with the require-ments of 7.5.1 a

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