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ASTM A1054 - 14.pdf

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ASTM A1054 - 14.pdf

Designation A1054 − 14Standard Specification forSintered Ceramic Ferrite Permanent Magnets1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1054; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers technically important, com-mercially available, magnetically hard sintered ceramic ferritepermanent magnets.1.2 Ceramic ferrite magnets have residual magnetic induc-tion Br from 2000 G 0.2 T up to about 5000 G 0.5 T andintrinsic coercive field strength HciHcJ from 2000 Oe160 kA/m up to about 5000 Oe 400 kA/m. Their specificmagnetic hysteresis behavior demagnetization curve can becharacterized using Test Method A977/A977M.1.3 The values stated in customary cgs-emu and inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values givenin parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units whichare provided for information only and are not consideredstandard.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A340 Terminology of Symbols and Definitions Relating toMagnetic TestingA977/A977M Test Method for Magnetic Properties of High-Coercivity Permanent Magnet Materials Using Hyster-esigraphs2.2 Other StandardsMMPA Standard No. 0100-00 Standard Specifications forPermanent Magnet Materials3IEC 60404-8-1, Magnetic Materials Part 8 Specificationsfor individual materials Section 1 – Standard specifica-tions for magnetically hard materials4International Air Transport Association IATA DangerousGoods Regulations, Packing Instruction 90253. Terminology3.1 The terms and symbols used in this specification aredefined in Terminology A340.4. Classification4.1 The classification of ceramic ferrite permanent magnetsis given in Tables 1 and 2, with cross-reference to MMPAStandard No. 0100-00 and IEC 60404-8-1 standards.5. Ordering Information5.1 Orders for parts conforming to this specification shallinclude the following information5.1.1 Reference to this standard and year of issue/revision.5.1.2 Reference to an applicable part drawing.5.1.3 Magnetic property requirements if they are morestringent that the minimum values listed in the tables.5.1.4 Quantity required.5.1.5 The required magnetization state of the providedmaterial unmagnetized, fully magnetized, magnetized andthermally stabilized, magnetized and partially demagnetized or“calibrated”. This information should appear on the partdrawing whenever possible.5.1.6 Certification of magnetic property evaluation.5.1.7 Marking and packaging requirements.5.1.8 Exceptions to this specification or special require-ments such as plating, coating, or functional testing as mutuallyagreed upon by the producer and user.6. Chemical Composition6.1 The general chemical composition of ceramic ferritemagnets is MO 6Fe2O3with M being barium, strontium, orsome combination of the two. New ferrite grades may also1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A06 onMagnetic Properties and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A06.02 onMaterial Specifications.Current edition approved May 15, 2014. Published June 2014. Originallyapproved in 2007. Last previous addition approved in 2007 as A1054-07. DOI10.1520/A1054-07.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3Available from The International Magnetics Association IMA, 8 SouthMichigan Avenue, Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60603.4Available from IEC International Electrotechnical Commission Central Office3, rue de Varemb, P.O. Box 131, CH - 1211, GENEVA 20 Switzerland.5Available from IATA, 800 Place Victoria, PO Box 113, Montral, Quebec, H4Z1M1.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1include some rare earth elements. Chemical compositionslisted in the tables are typical and are not guaranteed.7. Physical and Mechanical Properties7.1 Typical thermal properties are listed in Appendix X1.7.2 Typical physical properties are listed in Appendix X2.7.3 Physical density values are given for information pur-poses only and are not guaranteed.7.4 Ceramic magnets are used for their magnetic character-istics. The end-use application should not rely on them forstructural purposes due to low tensile and flexural strength.These materials are very brittle, and they chip and break easily.8. Magnetic Property Requirements8.1 Magnetic properties are listed in Tables 1 and 2.8.2 The values of essential magnetic properties listed in thetable are specified minimum values at 68F 20C, deter-mined after magnetizing to full saturation.8.3 The specified values of magnetic properties are validonly for magnet test specimens with a uniform cross-sectionalong the axis of magnetization. Properties for anisotropicmagnetically oriented magnets are measured along the axis ofpreferred orientation.8.4 Because of the nature of permanent magnet production,magnetic testing of each lot is strongly recommended, espe-cially for applications where the magnet performance is closelyspecified. Such magnetic property evaluations shall be con-ducted in the manner described below. Where the magnet shapeis not suitable for magnetic testing, a sample shall be cut fromthe magnet using appropriate slicing and grinding techniques,paying attention to any magnetic orientation within the magnet.8.4.1 The magnetic properties shall be determined in accor-dance with Test Method A977/A977M, or by using a suitable,mutually agreed upon magnetometer.8.4.2 When magnets are being purchased in the fullymagnetized condition, the testing shall determine the magneticproperties from the as-received magnetization state, followedTABLE 1 Classification and Minimum Magnetic Property Requirements for Isotropic Sintered Ceramic Ferrite MagnetsMaterial Magnetic PropertiesASTMDesignationAMMPABriefDesignationOriginalMMPAClassIECBriefDesigna-tionIECCodeRefer-enceMaximumEnergyProduct,MGOekJ/m3RemanentInductionBr,gauss mTNormalCoerciveField Strength,Hc HcBoersted kA/mIntrinsicCoerciveField Strength,HciHcJoersted kA/mRelativeRecoilPermeability,rec G/OeCE-I-01 1.03/3 Ceramic1... S1-0-1 1.05 8.4 2300 230 1860 148 3250 259 1.2ADesignations are XX-Y-ZZZ whereXX material type CE ceramic ferrite,Y processing and orientation I isotropic non-oriented, A anistropic oriented, andZZZ numeric grade designation.TABLE 2 Classification and Minimum Magnetic Property Requirements for Anisotropic Sintered Ceramic Ferrite MagnetsMaterial Magnetic PropertiesASTMDesignationAMMPABriefDesignationOriginalMMPAClassIECBriefDesigna-tionIECCodeRefer-enceMaximumEnergyProduct,MGOekJ/m3RemanentInductionBr,gauss mTNormalCoerciveField Strength,Hc HcBoersted kA/mIntrinsicCoerciveField Strength,HciHcJoersted kA/mRelativeRecoilPermeabilityrec G/OeCE-A-02 ... Ceramic2... ... 1.8 14.3 2900 290 2400 191 3000 239 1.1CE-A-05 3.4/2.5 Ceramic5Hard fer-rite 26/18S1-1-6 3.40 27.1 3800 380 2400 191 2500 199 1.1CE-A-06 ... Ceramic6... ... 2.45 19.5 3200 320 2820 225 3300 263 1.1CE-A-07 2.7/4.0 Ceramic7Hard fer-rite 20/28S1-1-2 2.75 21.9 3400 340 3250 259 4000 318 1.1CE-A-08A3.5/3.1 Ceramic8AHard fer-rite 25/12S1-1-5 3.50 27.9 3850 385 2950 235 3050 243 1.1CE-A-08B... Ceramic8B... ... 4.12 32.8 4200 420 2913 232 2960 236 1.1CE-A-10 ... Ceramic10... ... 3.82 30.4 4000 400 3510 280 3617 288 1.1CE-A-11 ... Ceramic11... ... 4.32 34.4 4300 430 2512 200 2560 204 1.1CE-A-21 3.4/3.9 ... ... ... 3.40 27.1 3800 380 3400 271 3900 310 1.1CE-A-22 4.0/2.9 ... ... ... 4.00 31.8 4100 410 2800 223 2900 231 1.1CE-A-23 3.2/4.8 ... ... ... 3.20 25.5 3700 370 3500 279 4800 382 1.1CE-A-24 3.8/4.0 ... ... ... 3.80 30.3 4000 400 3560 290 4000 318 1.1ADesignations are XX-Y-ZZZ whereXX material type CE ceramic ferrite,Y processing and orientation I isotropic non-oriented, A anistropic oriented, andZZZ numeric grade designation.A1054 − 142by magnetization to full saturation and testing of the magneticproperties from the fully magnetized condition.8.4.3 When magnets are being purchased in the unmagne-tized condition or in an unknown state of magnetization, thetest laboratory shall magnetize the test samples to fullsaturation and measure the magnetic properties from the fullymagnetized condition.8.4.4 When the magnets are being purchased in a calibrated,stabilized, or “knocked-down” condition, testing should beperformed by a method other than Test Method A977/A977Mto avoid changing the magnetization state of the material. AHelmholtz coil set and fluxmeter are often used to check theopen-circuit magnetization of magnets without changing themagnetization state; this is a one-point test which does not fullycharacterize the magnetic properties but may be a suitablescreening tool in production.9. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance9.1 Dimensions and tolerances shall be as specified on themagnet drawing and must be agreed upon between the user andthe producer.9.2 Cracks, porosity, and voids are common in sinteredferrite magnets and shall not in themselves constitute reasonfor rejection unless agreed upon between user and producer.Allowable defects shall be documented in writing as part of theordering or contracting process.9.3 Magnets shall be free of loose chips and surface residuewhich may interfere with assembly or proper device function.9.4 Chips shall be acceptable if no more than 5 of anysurface identified as a magnetic pole surface is removed.9.5 Cracks shall be acceptable provided they do not extendacross more than 50 of any surface identified as a magneticpole surface.10. Sampling10.1 A lot shall consist of parts of the same form anddimensions, produced from a single mixed powder batch orsintering run, or both, from an unchanged process, withoutdiscontinuity in production, and submitted for inspection at onetime.10.2 The user and producer shall agree upon a representa-tive number of specimens for testing. Typically, a suitablenumber of parts, as mutually agreed upon between producerand user, shall be randomly selected from each lot. It isadvisable to test a minimum of two parts from each lot, andmore if there is reason to suspect that the magnetic propertiesare not uniform throughout the lot.11. Rejection and Rehearing11.1 Parts that fail to conform to the requirements of thisspecification shall be rejected. Rejection should be reported tothe producer or supplier promptly and in writing. In case ofdissatisfaction with the results of the test, the producer maymake claim for a rehearing.11.2 The disposition of rejected parts shall be subject toagreement between the user and the producer.12. Certification12.1 When specified in the purchase order or contract, theuser shall be furnished certification that samples representingeach lot have been either tested or inspected as directed in thisspecification and that the requirements have been met.12.2 When specified in the purchase order or contract, areport of the test results shall include12.2.1 Grade of material.12.2.2 Magnetic test results.12.2.3 The results of any other tests stipulated in thepurchase order or contract.13. Packaging and Package Marking13.1 Packaging shall be subject to agreement between theuser and the producer.13.2 Parts furnished under this specification shall be in acontainer identified by the name or symbol of the partsproducer.13.3 Magnetized parts shall be properly labeled as such forsafe handling and shipping purposes.13.3.1 Unless declared as “Dangerous Goods,” magnetizedparts to be shipped via aircraft must be packaged in anappropriate manner so the closed shipping container meets theIATA magnetic requirements for air shipment. This mayrequire 1 rearranging the parts within the shipping container,or 2 adding sheets of steel or other magnetically softshielding material, or both, to reduce the magnetic fieldexternal to the shipping container below the required levels.14. Keywords14.1 ceramic ferrite; ceramic magnet; coercive fieldstrength; ferrite magnet; hard ferrite; magnetic induction;magnetic properties; permanent magnet; sintered ceramic fer-rite; sintered ferrite magnetA1054 − 143APPENDIXESNonmandatory InformationX1. TYPICAL THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CERAMIC MAGNETSReversible temperature coefficient of residual induction -0.2 /CReversible temperature coefficient of intrinsic coercive field strength 0.2 to 0.5 /CCurie temperature 450CMaximum exposure temperature without structural change 800CX2. TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CERAMIC MAGNETSDensity 4.9 to 5.1 g/cm34.9 to 5.1 103kg/m3Coefficient of thermal expansionPerpendicular to magnetic orientation 10 ppm/CParallel to magnetic orientation 14 ppm/CThermal conductivity 0.007 cal/cm-secC 2.93 J/m-secCElectrical resistivity 106ohm-cm 104ohm-mPorosity 5Modulus of elasticity 2.5107psi 170 109PaPoisson ratio 0.28Compressive strength 130 000 psi 900 106PaTensile strength 5000 psi 35 106PaFlexural strength 9000 psi 62 106PaHardness 7 MohsASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standardsand should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of theresponsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you shouldmake your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,United States. Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the aboveaddress or at 610-832-9585 phone, 610-832-9555 fax, or serviceastm.org e-mail;

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