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ASTM A1048 - A 1048M - 06 (2011).pdf

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ASTM A1048 - A 1048M - 06 (2011).pdf

Designation A1048/A1048M − 06 Reapproved 2011Standard Specification forPressure Vessel Forgings, Alloy Steel, Higher StrengthChromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten for Elevated TemperatureService1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1048/A1048M; the number immediately following the designation indicates theyear of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of lastreapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy steel forgings intended primarily for use inboilers and pressure vessels for elevated temperature service.1.1.1 Elevated temperatures are temperatures in the rangewhere creep and stress rupture properties are important for thealloy steels in this specification.1.2 Supplementary requirements are provided both in thisspecification and in the General Requirements SpecificationA788/A788M for use when additional testing or inspection isdesired. These shall apply only when specified individually bythe purchaser in the purchase order or contract.1.3 Unless the order specifies the applicable “M” specifica-tion designation, the forgings shall be supplied to the inch-pound units.1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound or SI metricunits are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the textand tables, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values statedin each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in nonconformancewith the specification.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A275/A275M Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination ofSteel ForgingsA388/A388M Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of SteelForgingsA788/A788M Specification for Steel Forgings, General Re-quirementsA966/A966M Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination ofSteel Forgings Using Alternating Current3. Ordering Information and General Requirements3.1 In addition to the ordering information required bySpecification A788/A788M, the purchaser should include withthe inquiry and order the following information3.1.1 A drawing, sketch, or written description of therequired forging and the manner of providing test material seeSection 6.3.1.2 Desired supplementary requirements including thosefrom Specification A788/A788M.3.1.3 Requirements for alternate ultrasonic examinationprocedure see 7.1.2.3.1.4 At the purchaser’s option Test Method A966/A966Mshall be used for the magnetic particle examination.3.2 Forgings supplied to this specification shall conform tothe requirements of Specification A788/A788M which, inaddition to ordering information, includes manufacturing re-quirements, testing and retesting methods and procedures,marking, certification, product analysis variations and addi-tional supplementary requirements.3.3 If the requirements of this specification are in conflictwith those of Specification A788/A788M, the requirements ofthis specification shall prevail.4. Materials and Manufacture4.1 The steel melting procedures of Specification A788/A788M shall apply except that the open hearth process shallnot be used, and that the molten steel shall be vacuum degassedprior to or during teeming of the ingot to remove objectionablegasses, notably hydrogen.4.2 Heat Treatment4.2.1 After being permitted to transform following comple-tion of forging the material may be given an intermediate heattreatment such as normalizing and tempering or a subcriticalanneal prior to preliminary machining to the required heattreatment contour. The purchaser may specify supplementaryrequirement S1 to have the forgings rough machined before thefinal heat treatment.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.06 on Steel Forgings and Billets.Current edition approved Oct. 1, 2011. Published January 2012. Originallyapproved in 2006. Last previous edition approved in 2006 as A1048/A1048M – 06.DOI 10.1520/A1048_A1048M-06R11.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States14.2.2 Heat treatment applied either after rough machining ordirectly after cooling from forging shall consist of normalizingand tempering as followsNormalize from 1950 to 2050F [1065 to 1120C]Temper at 1290 to 1400F [700 to 760C]4.2.3 Multiple normalize or temper cycles, or both, may beapplied providing the final stages comply with the temperaturesshown in 4.2.2.5. Chemical Composition5.1 Heat AnalysisThe heat analysis obtained fromsamples taken in accordance with Specification A788/A788Mshall comply with Table 1.5.2 The manufacturer shall use the product analysis provi-sions of Specification A788/A788M to obtain a product analy-sis from a forging representing each heat or multiple heat. Thepurchaser may also make this determination in accordance withSpecification A788/A788M.6. Mechanical Properties6.1 Tension and Charpy impact test specimens shall beoriented in the longitudinal direction, that is, with their majoraxes parallel to the direction of maximum working.6.2 Both the tensile and Charpy impact specimens shall belocated at the mid-radius or1⁄4 thickness location in the integraltest prolongation or, if applicable see 6.4, in the test forging.6.3 The integral test prolongation or prolongations shall beno smaller in diameter or effective section thickness than themaximum diameter or cross section of the connected forging.6.4 For forgings weighing 5000 lb [2250 kg] or less at thetime of heat treatment, a separately forged test bar may be usedto provide material for mechanical testing.6.4.1 The heat-treated diameter or section thickness of thetest forging must be at least equal to the heat-treated diameteror effective section of the forgings it represents.6.4.2 One test forging, yielding one tension test and aCharpy impact test consisting of three specimens is requiredto represent each heat in each heat treatment charge.6.5 For heat-treated weights over 5000 lb [2250 kg] but notmore than 10 000 lb [4500 kg] an integral prolongation isrequired at one end of each forging. One tension test and oneCharpy test three specimens is required for each forging.6.6 For heat-treated weights over 10 000 lb [4500 kg] andheat-treated lengths up to 10 ft [3 m], excluding the testprolongation, two sets of mechanical test specimens shall betaken from an integral prolongation at one end of each forging.These sets shall be located 180 apart and each set shall consistof one tension test and a Charpy test.6.6.1 For heat-treated weights over 10 000 lb [4500 kg] andheat-treated lengths over 10 ft [3 m], a test prolongation isrequired to be located at each end of the forging. One set ofmechanical test specimens shall be taken from each prolonga-tion, and each test set shall consist of one tension test and aCharpy test.6.7 The tension and Charpy test results shall conform to therequirements of Tables 2 and 3, respectively.7. Nondestructive Examination7.1 Ultrasonic Examination7.1.1 Forgings shall undergo ultrasonic examination in ac-cordance with the procedures of Practice A388/A388M.7.1.2 Straight-Beam ExaminationUnless otherwise speci-fied by the purchaser see 3.1.3 back-reflection method shallbe used.7.1.3 In addition to the reportable conditions referenced inPractice A388/A388M indications exceeding the resultantback-reflection shall be recorded.7.1.4 Aforging shall be considered to be unacceptable whenone or more reflections are present producing indicationsaccompanied by a complete loss of back-reflection, not attrib-utable to nor associated with the geometric configuration. Forthis purpose a back-reflection of less than 5 of full screenheight shall be considered to be complete loss of back-reflection.7.1.5 Angle-Beam ExaminationBored or hollow forgingsshall be provided with calibration notches in accordance withPractice A388/A388M.7.1.6 A forging that contains a discontinuity that results inan indication exceeding the amplitude of the reference line issubject to rejection.7.1.7 The report of the complete ultrasonic test shall be incompliance with Practice A388/A388M.7.2 Magnetic Particle Examination 7.2.1 Each forging shall be examined by a magnetic particlemethod in accordance with Test Method A275/A275M afterheat treatment and in the final machined condition, except thatat the purchaser’s option see 3.1.4 the AC Yoke from TestMethod A966/A966M shall be used.7.2.2 Only indications with major dimensions exceeding1⁄16in. [1.5 mm] shall be considered to be relevant. The followingrelevant indications are unacceptableTABLE 1 Chemical Composition Element Grade 315 Grade 315TaCarbon 0.08-0.12 0.08-0.12Manganese 0.25-0.45 0.25-0.45Phosphorous, max 0.010 0.010Sulfur, max 0.010 0.010Silicon 0.15-0.40 0.15-0.40Nickel, max 0.25 0.25Chromium 2.8-3.2 2.8-3.2Molybdenum 0.65-0.85 0.65-0.85Vanadium 0.20-0.30 0.20-0.30Boron, max 0.0007 0.0007Tungsten 1.35-1.75 1.35-1.75Tantalum . . . 0.07-0.13Aluminum, max 0.015 0.015TABLE 2 Tensile RequirementsProperty Grade 315 and Grade 315TaTensile Strength, ksi [MPa] 105-135 [725-930]Yield Strength, ksi [MPa] min 85 [585]Elongation in 2 in. [50 mm], min 16Reduction of Area, min 50A1048/A1048M − 06 201127.2.2.1 Any linear indication greater than1⁄16 in. [1.5 mm] inlength for forgings up to and including 1 in. [25 mm] inthickness, or greater than1⁄8 in. [3 mm] in length for forgingsgreater than 1 in. [25 mm] but not more than 3 in. [75 mm] inthickness, or greater than3⁄16 in. [5 mm] in length for forgingsgreater than 3 in. [75 mm] in thickness.7.2.2.2 Rounded indications with dimensions greater than1⁄8 in. [3 mm] for thickness dimensions up to and including1 in. [25 mm] and3⁄16 in. [5 mm] for thicknesses over 1 in.[25 mm].7.2.2.3 Four or more relevant indications linear or roundedin a line and separated by1⁄16 in. [1.5 mm] or less, edge to edge.7.2.2.4 Ten or more relevant indications in any6 in.2[40 cm2] of surface with the major dimension of this areanot to exceed 6 in. [150 mm].8. Certification and Reports8.1 In addition to the certification and reporting require-ments of Specification A788/A788M, the manufacturer shallinclude the following8.2 Product analysis results, and8.3 Sketches or drawings as needed to illustrate the nonde-structive examination reports.9. Keywords9.1 alloy steel forgings; boilers; chromium-molybdenum-tungsten; elevated temperature service; mandatory nondestruc-tive testing; pressure vesselsSUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTSOne or more of the following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified by thepurchaser in the order. Additional supplementary requirements are included in SpecificationA788/A788M for use by the purchaser. Details of the selected supplementary requirements shall havebeen agreed upon between the manufacturer and purchaser.S1. Preliminary MachiningS1.1 Forgings shall be rough machined to a drawing pro-vided by, or agreed to by the purchaser prior to heat treatment.S2. Special Tension Test Requirements for Hubbed TubeSheets and FlangesS2.1 For hubbed tube sheets and flanges supplied forASMEBoiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, tension andimpact test specimens shall be taken from the hub location asshown in S12 of Specification A788/A788M.S2.2 The number of tests shall be as required in Section 6and shall replace those required in Section 6.ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standardsand should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of theresponsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you shouldmake your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,United States. Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the aboveaddress or at 610-832-9585 phone, 610-832-9555 fax, or serviceastm.org e-mail; or through the ASTM websitewww.astm.org. Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website www.astm.org/COPYRIGHT/.TABLE 3 Charpy V-Notch Impact Requirements Tested at32F [0C] maxProperty Grades 315 and 315TaLateral Expansion, mils [mm] min 25 [0.6 mm]Min Average Absorbed Energy, ft-lbf [J]A35 [48]Min Single Value, ft-lbf [J] 25 [34]ANot more than one specimen from a set of three may be below this value.A1048/A1048M − 06 20113

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