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ASTM A1047 - A 1047M - 05 (2014).pdf

Designation A1047/A1047M − 05 Reapproved 2014Standard Test Method forPneumatic Leak Testing of Tubing1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1047/A1047M; the number immediately following the designation indicates theyear of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of lastreapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This test method provides procedures for the leak testingof tubing using pneumatic pressure. This test method involvesmeasuring the change in pressure inside the tubing over time.There are three procedures that may be used, all of which areintended to be equivalent. It is a qualitative not a quantitativetest method. Any of the three procedures are intended to becapable of leak detection and, as such, are intended to beequivalent for that purpose.1.2 The procedures will produce consistent results uponwhich acceptance standards can be based. This test may beperformed in accordance with the Pressure Differential Pro-cedure A, the Pressure Decay Procedure B, or the VacuumDecay Procedure C method.1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in non-conformancewith the standard.1.3.1 Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A1016/A1016M Specification for General Requirements forFerritic Alloy Steel, Austenitic Alloy Steel, and StainlessSteel Tubes3. Terminology3.1 DefinitionsThe definitions in Specification A1016/A1016M are applicable to this test method.3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard3.2.1 actual starting pressure P0actualthe actual start-ing pressure at time zero on each test cycle.3.2.2 calibration holea device such as a crimpedcapillary, or a tube containing a hole produced by laser drillingcertified to be of the specified diameter.3.2.3 control volumefixed volume that is pressurized tocompare against an identical pressure contained in one tubeunder test.3.2.4 electronic control device ECDan electronic systemto accumulate input from limit switches and transmittersproviding corresponding outputs to solenoid valves, acousticalarm devices, and visual displays3.2.5 pressure change ∆Pthe smallest pressure changein a tube, reliably detected by a pressure sensitive transmitter.3.2.6 pressure sensitive transmitterspressure measuringand signaling devices that detect extremely small changes inpressure, either between two tubes, a tube and a controlvolume, or a tube and the ambient atmosphere.3.2.7 reference standarda tube or container containing acalibration hole. The calibration hole may either be in a fulllength tube, or in a short device attached to the tube orcontainer.3.2.8 starting pressure P0the test starting pressure set inthe test apparatus ECD.3.2.9 theoretical holea hole that will pass air at a theo-retical rate as defined by the equations given inAppendix X1.2.3.2.10 threshold pressure PTtest ending pressure limitafter the allowed test time; the pressure value that must be1This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.10 on Stainless and Alloy Steel Tubular Products.Current edition approved March 1, 2014. Published March 2014. Originallyapproved in 2005. Last previous edition approved in 2009 as A1047/A1047M – 052009. DOI 10.1520/A1047_A1047M-05R14.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;crossed to determine reject status. PT P0actual – ∆P forpressure decay, and PT P0actual ∆P for vacuum decay.4. Summary of Test Method4.1 Procedure A, Pressure Differential, measures the drop inpressure over time as a result of air escaping from inside onetube when compared to another tube at an identical pressure, orone tube against a control volume at identical pressure. SeeRefs 1 and 2.34.2 Procedure B, Pressure Decay, measures the drop inpressure over time as a result of air escaping from the tube.4.3 Procedure C, Vacuum Decay, involves evacuating thetubing to suitably low pressure and measuring the increase inpressure caused by gas entering the tubing.5. Significance and Use5.1 When permitted by a specification or the order, this testmethod may be used for detecting leaks in tubing in lieu of theair underwater pressure test.6. Apparatus6.1 An electronic control device ECD controls all opera-tions of the test method by accepting inputs from limit switchesand transmitters, and by providing corresponding pass/failoutputs to solenoid valves, acoustic alarm devices, and visualdisplays. The pass/fail determination is achieved by a compari-son of the data input from pressure transducers with a standardaccept/reject criterion measured over the set test time.6.2 The test apparatus may have the capability for single- ormulti-tube testing. It shall be designed to detect a smallpredetermined pressure change during the testing cycle. It isintended that the apparatus be fully automated and equippedwith suitable instrumentation for the purpose of the test. Thisinstrumentation may include, but is not limited to the follow-ing6.2.1 Internal transducers for calibration tests,6.2.2 Differential pressure and leak rate diagnosis,6.2.3 Control panel display for reporting digital or analogoutputs,6.2.4 Absolute or differential pressure transducers, or both,6.2.5 Internal timing device,6.2.6 Failure lamps, and6.2.7 Automatic shutdown capability.7. Hazards7.1 WarningIn addition to other precautions, high pres-sure air is employed during the testing process.8. Calibration8.1 Apparatus calibration shall be performed using a refer-ence standard, with adjustments of Starting Pressure P0,Pressure Change ∆P, and test time. Test time is dependentupon starting pressure, allowed pressure change, tube internalvolume, hole diameter, and is calculated using the equation inAppendix X1. Actual test time may be longer than thecalculated value and shall be adjusted as necessary for theapparatus to cross the threshold pressure and cause the systemto automatically shut down.8.2 Verify that all failure lights are illuminated during thecalibration.8.3 Unless otherwise specified, apparatus calibration shallbe made at twelve month intervals maximum.8.4 Recalibrate the test apparatus prior to use whenever anypressure sensing component is replaced or modified.8.5 Calibrate the calibration hole at twelve month intervalsmaximum. It is recommended that the device containing thecalibration hole be stored in an inert atmosphere and cleanedwith high pressure nitrogen.8.6 Calibrate all pressure gauges and pressure transducers attwelve month intervals maximum.8.7 Unless otherwise agreed to by producer and purchaser,the minimum calibration hole size in the reference standardshall be 0.003-in. diameter. Calibration with smaller holes maynot be repeatable due to fouling and plugging. See Ref 3.9. Procedure9.1 Perform pneumatic leak testing after all processoperations, including cold work, heat treatment, and straight-ening.9.2 Clean and dry the tubes before testing. Remove loosescale from the inside and outside surfaces of the tubes.9.3 Actual test time is calculated in accordance with theparameters of the test using the appropriate equation in X1.2.9.4 Test Cycle for Procedure A, Pressure Differential9.4.1 Pressurize the tubes in pairs, or a single tube and aknown control volume, to a pressure greater than 33 psia withclean and dry compressed air.9.4.2 Allow the system to stabilize and measure the actualStarting Pressure P0actual. P0actual must be within 10 ofP0for a valid test.9.4.3 The apparatus is to calculate and set the ThresholdPressure where PT P0actual – ∆P.9.4.4 Isolate the tubes in pairs or a single tube and a knowncontrol volume.9.4.5 Measure the pressure at the end of the test period. Thetubes or tube have/has passed the test if the pressure has notcrossed the threshold pressure PT. If the threshold pressure hasbeen crossed, then the tubes or tube have failed. When a failureoccurs while testing tubes in pairs, the individual tubes may betested with other tubes to determine which tube failed.9.5 Test Cycle for Procedure B, Pressure Decay9.5.1 Pressurize the tube to a pressure greater than 33 psiawith clean and dry compressed air.9.5.2 Allow the system to stabilize and measure the actualStarting Pressure P0actual. P0actual must be within 10 ofP0for a valid test.9.5.3 The apparatus is to calculate and set the ThresholdPressure where PT P0actual – ∆P.3The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to a list of references at the end ofthis standard.A1047/A1047M − 05 20142Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;9.5.4 Measure the pressure at the end of the test cycle. Thetube has passed the test if the pressure has not crossed thethreshold pressure PT.9.6 Test Cycle for Procedure C, Vacuum Decay See Refs4 and 5.9.6.1 Draw a vacuum on the tube to a pressure below 6 psia.9.6.2 Allow the system to stabilize and measure the actualStarting Pressure P0actual. P0actual must be within 10 ofP0for a valid test.9.6.3 The apparatus is to calculate and set the ThresholdPressure where PT P0actual ∆P.9.6.4 Measure the pressure at the end of the test cycle. Thetube has passed the test if the pressure has not crossed thethreshold pressure PT.10. Report10.1 Report the following information10.1.1 Tubing identification, and10.1.2 Procedure used for the satisfactory results of the test.10.2 Maintain records of the test parameters and results.11. Precision and Bias11.1 No information is presented about either the precisionor bias of this test method for measuring the leak capabilitysince the test is non-quantative.12. Keywords12.1 leak testing; pneumatic testingAPPENDIXNonmandatory InformationX1. EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS AND APPLICATIONSX1.1 NomenclatureX1.1 Pa absolute atmospheric pressure, in psia 14.69psiaP0 initial absolute pressure inside the tube, in psiaPf final absolute pressure inside the tube, in psia∆P absolute pressure change inside the tube during the testperiod, in psiaV tube internal volume, in ft3or in.3as notedA through wall hole cross section area, in ft2or in.2asnotedd through wall hole diameter, in inchest test or decay time, in secondsT absolute air temperature inside the tube, in R F 460; T may be assumed to be 70 F 530 RM mass of air contained in a tube, in lbm∆M mass change inside the tube during the test period, inlbmm˙ mass flow rate of air leaking through a hole, in lbm/secρa density of air at standard conditions 0.0765 lbm/ft3R gas constant for air 53.3 ftlbf/lbmRX1.2 Theoretical Time EquationsX1.2.1 Pressure Differential and Pressure Decay Timet 5 1.65 31024Vd2U lnP02 ∆PP0U X1.1with units V 5 in.3, d 5 in.,and assuming T 5 530 RX1.2.2 Vacuum Decay Timet 5 1.65 31024Vd2∆PPaX1.2with units V 5 in.3, d 5 in.,and assuming T 5 530 RNOTE X1.1The vacuum equations can be used for the pressureequations by substituting P0for Pawith the provision that ∆P is less than1 psi.X1.3 DerivationX1.3.1 From Fliegner’s Formula see Ref 6, page 85m˙ TAP5 0.532 or m˙ 50.532APTX1.3with units A 5 ft2, P 5lbfft2X1.3.1.1 Boundary condition for choked flow see Ref 6,page 84PaPf,0.528 for pressure decay,PfPa,0.528 for vacuum decayX1.4X1.3.2 Ideal Gas LawPV 5 MRT or P 5MRTVX1.5X1.3.3 Pressure Decaying from a Control VolumeA1047/A1047M − 05 20143Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;dPdt5RTVdMdt5RTVm˙ X1.6X1.3.3.1 Substituting Fliegner’s formuladPdt5RTV0.532APT528.36APTVX1.7dPP528.36ATVdt 5 τdt*1PdP 5 *τdtt 5V28.36ATU lnP02 ∆PP0Uwith V in ft3, A in ft2, P can be any unitt 5 1.65 31024Vd2U lnP02 ∆PP0Uwith units V 5 in.3, d 5 in.,and assuming T 5 530 RX1.3.4 Vacuum Decay into a Control VolumeX1.3.4.1 Because the high pressure source is the atmo-sphere and is of infinite quantity, pressure in a control volumeincreases at a linear rate.t 5∆Mm˙X1.8∆M 5 V∆ρρ05P0Paρa, ρf5PfPaρa, ∆ρ 5∆PPaρa5 0.0765∆PPaX1.3.4.2 Again using Fliegner’s formulam˙ 50.532APaTX1.9with units A 5 ft2, Pa5lbfft2t 5∆Mm˙50.0765V∆PPa0.532APaT5 0.1438VTAPa∆PPaUsing Pa5 2115 psfa 14.69 psiat 5 6.8 31025VTA∆PPawith units V 5 ft3, A 5 ft2, T 5 R,and P can be any unitt 5 1.65 31024Vd2∆PPawith units V 5 in.3, d 5 in.,and assuming T 5 530 RX1.4 Application ExampleX1.4.1 For Procedure A, Pressure Differential, determinethe pressure decay time of a 1 in. OD by 0.050 in. wall by 60ft long tube with a 0.003 in. diameter hole; the test apparatusinitial pressure is 110 psig with 0.031 psig allowed pressuredrop.X1.4.1.1 Using the equation given in X1.2.1t 5 1.65 31024Vd2U lnP02 ∆PP0U X1.10V 5 458 in.3d 5 0.003 in.P05 110114.69 5 124.69 psia∆P 5 0.031 psiat 5 1.65 310244580.0032U ln124.69 2 0.031124.69U51.65 310243458 32 310249 310265 1.7secX1.5 GraphX1.5.1 The graph in Fig. X1.1 displays decay time as afunction of tube internal volume assuming a 0.003 in. holediameter, 110 psig initial pressure, and 0.031 psig allowedpressure drop.A1047/A1047M − 05 20144Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;REFERENCES1 An Improved Method for Testing Stainless and Titanium Tubing –PWR- Vol. 34, 1999 Joint Power Generation Conference Volume 2ASME 1999. Dennis J. Schumerth Scott Johnson, Valtimet, Inc.2 Pressure Differential Testing of Tubing, ASTM Material ResearchStandards, ASTM Vol. 1, No. 7, July 1961.3 ASTM A01.10 Task Group 961T-6 ReportsNov. 2000, Valtimet Report AUW vs., P-DMay, 2001, Rath Manufacturing Co. Report on Leak Testing4 A Users Guide to Vacuum Technology, John O’Hanlon, WileyInterscience.5 Foundations of Vacuum Science and Technology, J. M. Lafferty,Wiley Inerscience.6 The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow,Volume I, Ascher H. Shapiro, The Roland Press Company, 1953 .ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the v

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