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ASTM A1036 - 04 (2015).pdf

Designation A1036 − 04 Reapproved 2015Standard Guide forMeasuring Power Frequency Magnetic Properties of Flat-Rolled Electrical Steels Using Small Single Sheet Testers1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1036; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This guide covers procedures for interpreting the spe-cific core loss and peak permeability determined using smallsingle-sheet test systems. It is limited to single-sheet testsystems that require a test specimen or coupon be cut from thematerial being tested and are designed such that the entirewidth of that test specimen is magnetized during testing.1.2 This guide is primarily intended for measurements ofthe magnetic properties of flat-rolled electrical steels at fre-quencies of 50 Hz or 60 Hz under sinusoidal flux conditions.1.3 This guide includes procedures to provide correlationwith the 25-cm Epstein test method Test Method A343/A343M.1.4 The range of magnetic flux densities is governed by theproperties of the test specimens and the instruments and testpower source. Nonoriented electrical steels may be tested atmagnetic flux densities up to about 16-kG [1.6T] for core loss.The maximum magnetic field strength for peak permeabilitytesting is limited by the current carrying capacity of themagnetizing winding and the test power source. Single sheettesters are typically capable of testing at magnetic fieldstrengths up to 50 Oe [4000 A/m] or more.1.5 Within this guide, a small single sheet tester small SSTis defined as a magnetic tester designed to test flat, rectangularsheet-type specimens. Typical specimens for these testers aresquare or nearly so. The design of the small SST test fixturemay be small enough to accommodate specimens about 5 by 5cm or may be large enough to accommodate specimens about36 by 36 cm. Specimens for a particular SST must beappropriate for the particular test fixture.1.6 This guide covers two alternative test methods Method1 and Method 2.1.6.1 Method 1 is an extension of Method 1 of Test MethodA804/A804M, which describes a test fixture having twowindings that encircle the test specimen and two low-reluctance, low-core loss ferromagnetic yokes that serve as fluxreturn paths. The dimensions of the test fixture for Method 1are not fixed but rather may be designed and built for anynominal specimen dimension within the limits given in 1.5.The power loss in this case is determined by measuring theaverage value of the product of primary current and inducedsecondary voltage.1.6.2 Method 2 covers the use of a small single sheet tester,which employs a magnetizing winding, a magnetic flux sensingwinding, and a magnetic field strength detector. The power lossin this case is determined by measuring the average value ofthe product of induced secondary voltage and magnetic fieldstrength.1.6.3 The calibration method described in the annex of thisguide applies to both test methods.1.7 The values and equations stated in customary cgs-emuand inch-pound or SI units are to be regarded separately asstandard. Within this standard, SI units are shown in brackets.The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents;therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other.Combining values from the two systems may result in noncon-formance with this standard.1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory requirements prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A340 Terminology of Symbols and Definitions Relating toMagnetic TestingA343/A343M Test Method for Alternating-Current Mag-netic Properties of Materials at Power Frequencies UsingWattmeter-Ammeter-Voltmeter Method and 25-cm Ep-stein Test FrameA677 Specification for Nonoriented Electrical Steel FullyProcessed Types1This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A06 on MagneticProperties and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A06.01 on Test Methods.Current edition approved Oct. 1, 2015. Published October 2015. Originallyapproved in 2004. Last previous edition approved in 2009 as A1036–04 2009.DOI 10.1520/A1036-04R15.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1A683/A683M Specification for Nonoriented Electrical Steel,Semiprocessed TypesA726 Specification for Cold-Rolled Magnetic LaminationQuality Steel, Semiprocessed TypesA804/A804M Test Methods for Alternating-Current Mag-netic Properties of Materials at Power Frequencies UsingSheet-Type Test SpecimensA840/A840M Specification for Fully Processed MagneticLamination Steel3. Terminology3.1 Definitions3.1.1 GeneralThe definitions of terms, symbols, and con-version factors relating to magnetic testing found in Terminol-ogy A340 are used in the methods in this guide.3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard3.2.1 sheet specimena rectangular specimen comprised ofa single piece of material or paralleled multiple strips ofmaterial arranged in a single layer.3.2.2 small single sheet testera magnetic tester designedto determine the magnetic properties of small rectangularsheet-type specimens.4. Significance and Use4.1 Materials EvaluationSmall single sheet testers weredeveloped to supplement the testing of Epstein specimens forvarious applications. They are especially appropriate for deter-mining the magnetic properties of samples when insufficientmaterial is available for preparation of an Epstein specimen.Although the small specimen size is attractive, the precision ofthe small sheet testers is not expected to be as good as that ofthe test method Test Method A343/A343M. Small sheet testersare frequently used to measure the properties of both fullyprocessed and semiprocessed nonoriented and magnetic lami-nation steels. Specimens of semiprocessed steels are normallysubjected to an appropriate quality development anneal prior totesting. Small sheet testers may also be used to evaluateoriented electrical steels in either the as sheared or stress-reliefannealed condition.5. Apparatus5.1 Test Method 1The apparatus for Test Method 1 in-cludes a test fixture having two windings that encircle the testspecimen a magnetizing winding and a flux-sensing secondarywinding and two low-reluctance, low-core loss ferromagneticyokes that serve as flux return paths. Such a test fixture may beconstructed by following the instructions given in Annex A1 ofTest Method A804/A804M. The test power and instrumenta-tion for this method are described as Test Method 1 in TestMethod A804/A804M. The primary difference between thetests covered by this guide and Test Method 1 of Test MethodA804/A804M are the dimensions of the yokes and the limita-tion to the use of double-yoke test fixtures. When selecting testinstrumentation and test power source components for Method1, the devices selected for use with small single-sheet testfixtures must have appropriate ranges for these smaller testfixtures.5.2 Test Method 2Test systems for Method 2 are suppliedas complete test systems test fixture, test power source, andcomplete instrumentation.6. Procedure6.1 Determine Correction FactorsFollowing the proce-dures given in Annex A1, determine correction factors for thegrades of material that will be evaluated at the magnetic fluxdensities at which tests will be performed. The samples used todetermine the correction factors must be typical of the materialthat will be evaluated since correction factors vary with class ofmaterial, chemical composition, thickness, heat treatment,grain direction, magnetic flux density, and other physicalproperties.6.2 Prepare the Test SpecimenThe type of test fixture andits dimensions govern the dimensions of permissible testspecimens. The minimum length of a specimen shall be no lessthan the outside dimension of the distance between pole facesof the test fixture. The amount of projection of the specimenbeyond the pole faces of fixture is not critical but should be nolonger than necessary for convenient loading and unloading ofthe specimen. For maximum accuracy, the specimen widthshould, as nearly as practicable, be the maximum that can beaccommodated by the opening of the test coil. As a minimum,it is recommended that the specimen width be at least one halfof the maximum width that can be accommodated by the testcoil.6.2.1 Specimens with length and width appropriate for thesmall single sheet tester shall be cut by a suitable method. Thespecimens shall be as rectangular as practicable. Excessiveburr and mechanical distortion must be avoided when prepar-ing the test specimens. Specimens may be subjected to anydesired heat treatment.6.3 Make Initial DeterminationsDepending upon the testequipment used, the appropriate measured values of length,width, thickness, or mass, or combinations thereof, of thespecimen must be determined prior to conducting magnetictests. These measured values are needed to set up the instru-ment for conducting tests. When mass is required, it shall bedetermined using a balance capable of measuring the specimenmass with an uncertainty less than 0.1 . The length or widthof the specimen shall be measured by any suitable method withan uncertainty less than 0.1 .6.3.1 Cross-sectional AreaThe preferred method of deter-mining cross-sectional area is the mass-density method. Sometest systems may require that the width and thickness of thespecimen be entered into the test instrument and others mayrequire that the cross-sectional area be entered. The cross-sectional area is determined using the following equationA 5 m/lδ 1whereA cross-sectional area of specimen, cm2,m total mass of specimen, g,l actual length of specimen, cm, andδ assumed density of specimen material, g/cm3.When required, the thickness may be determined by dividingthe cross-sectional area by the width.A1036 − 04 201526.3.2 Alternate Cross-sectional AreaAlthough the mass-density method of determining the cross-sectional area is thepreferred method, direct measurement of the thickness andwidth of the test specimen is an alternate method. When thethickness is measured directly with a micrometer, the length ofthe specimen does not need to be measured. Direct measure-ment of the thickness is likely to increase the uncertainty ofmeasurements, especially for specimens that have appliedcoatings, have rough surfaces, or are very thin less than about0.018 in. [0.50 mm]. If direct thickness measurement is usedwhen testing specimens, direct thickness measurement shouldalso be used when making measurements with the small sheettester to determine calibration constants the correspondingEpstein tests are always to be conducted according to TestMethod A343/A343M.6.4 Perform Tests6.4.1 Method 1Follow the procedures for conducting testsaccording to Sections 9 though 11 of Test Method A804/A804M to determine the uncorrected core losses or uncor-rected magnetic field strengths, or both, at the desired fluxdensities. When computing the uncorrected core loss anduncorrected magnetic field strength, the effective path lengthshould be the distance between the inner edges of the flux-return yokes measured in the direction of the flux path in thetest specimen.6.4.2 Method 2Follow the instrument manufacturer’s in-structions to determine the uncorrected core losses or uncor-rected magnetic field strengths, or both, at the desired fluxdensities.6.5 Apply Correction FactorsUsing the appropriate cor-rection factors for the test specimen and test magnetic fluxdensity, correct the uncorrected core losses and uncorrectedmagnetic field strengths determined using the small single-sheet tester according to either Method 1 or Method 2 usingthe equations belowPCB;ƒ5 KlPa2wherePCB;ƒ corrected specific core loss, W/lb [W/kg],Kl correction factor for core loss at specified testconditions, andPa uncorrected specific core loss by yoke fixture test,W/lb [W/kg].HP5 K2Ha3whereHP corrected peak magnetic field strength, Oe [A/m],K2 correction factor for magnetic field strength at speci-fied test conditions, andHa uncorrected peak magnetic field strength by yokefixture test, Oe [A/m].7. Keywords7.1 alternating current; core loss; electrical steel; flux den-sity; magnetic; magnetic material; magnetic test; permeability;power frequency; sheetANNEXESMandatory InformationA1. CALIBRATION OF SMALL SINGLE SHEET TESTERS SSTsA1.1 This calibration procedure uses specimens that aresuitable for testing using a 25-cm Epstein frame. Thesespecimens are composed of strips that are typically longer thanthe normal test specimen for the SST being calibrated. Thesingle sheet testers described in both methods discussed in thisguide are considered to be insensitive to excess specimenlength. If the specimens are longer than the distance betweenthe outside edges of the yoke, the portion of the specimen thatextends beyond the yoke should be supported to avoid stress.A1.2 The specimens used to calibrate the SST shall consistof strips typical of the grade of material that is to be tested inthe SST. At least five specimens of each grade are preferred.For oriented materials these specimens shall be stress-reliefannealed. For nonoriented materials, the annealed condition ofthe calibration specimens shall be the same as that of thematerial to be tested. The width of each strip shall be 3.0 cm[30 mm]. The minimum length of each specimen shall be 28cm [280 mm]. The number of strips in each specimen shall bea multiple of four and a minimum of twelve.A1.3 Each specimen shall be tested in a 25-cm Epsteinframe in accordance with test method Test Method A343/A343M. The magnetic properties to be determined are thosewhich the SST will be used to measure routinely whencalibrated.A1.4 Each specimen shall be tested in the SST. A maximumof 12 strips limited by test fixture may be combined inparallel in a single layer when tested in the SST. Dependingupon the outside dimension of the distance between the yokefaces of the SST test fixture, tests may be required at more thanone position along the length of the specimen to permitevaluation of the average properties.A1.5 When conducting tests using equipment described inMethod 1, an effective magnetic path length must be assumedfor calculating the uncorrected specific core loss from mea-sured total power loss. The prefer

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