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ASTM A1030 - A 1030M - 11.pdf

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ASTM A1030 - A 1030M - 11.pdf

Designation A1030/A1030M − 11Standard Practice forMeasuring Flatness Characteristics of Steel Sheet Products1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1030/A1030M; the number immediately following the designation indicates theyear of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of lastreapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope*1.1 Flatness is a significant quality characteristic of steelsheet products. Sheet flatness is affected by mill process factorsplus the grade, thickness and width of the material supplied. Itis the purpose of this practice to define the different flatnesscharacteristics and to describe the methods most commonlyused to measure particular characteristics. The methods de-scribed are designed and intended to be used in mill situationsand environments.1.2 The substrate shall conform to all the requirements ofthe appropriate specifications as follows Specifications A568/A568M or A924/A924M.1.3 Quantitative limits are not addressed and are establishedin the general requirements, or individual productspecifications, or both; or when applicable, as agreed tobetween supplier and user.1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in non-conformancewith the standard.1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A568/A568M Specification for Steel, Sheet, Carbon,Structural, and High-Strength, Low-Alloy, Hot-Rolled andCold-Rolled, General Requirements forA924/A924M Specification for General Requirements forSteel Sheet, Metallic-Coated by the Hot-Dip Process3. Significance and Use3.1 The definitions and procedures for measuring flatnesscharacteristics of steel sheet products are provided so thatpurchasers and suppliers have common definitions and mea-suring procedures for flatness characteristics. The intention ofthese definitions and measuring methods is not to provide adimensional specification for flatness characteristics, but rathercommon procedures for quantifying flatness anomalies. Fordetermining compliance with flatness specifications, referencesare provided to appropriate ASTM standards.4. Interferences4.1 Measurement of flatness often has been subjective, atbest. Successful measurement of various flatness anomalies onquantitative terms requires recognition of several factors thatcan interfere with accurate measurements.4.1.1 Flat surfaces are required. Measurement of severalanomalies requires laying of the sample, or a coil area, on arecognized flat surface. In most cases, laying the sample, or acoil area, on a floor will produce satisfactory results, as long asthe floor is recognized as being flat. The flatness of coil areasis also measured on the flat tables of coil processing lines, withthe strip tension released. If the measuring surface is notrecognized as being flat, a machined flat surface is recom-mended.4.1.2 Stepblock gauges or tapered gauges should bechecked regularly with a calibrated hand micrometer. Wear ordirt build up will affect accuracy.4.1.3 The flat tables of shape gauges capable of measuringflatness characteristics must be clean and the sensors must bein good condition.4.1.4 The sheet sample must be damage free.5. Apparatus5.1 Appropriate tools to measure flatness anomalies aredescribed along with drawings as indicated.5.1.1 Flat SurfacesAccurate measurements of flatnessanomalies require a flat surface, machined flat preferred.5.1.2 Machined Stepblock GaugeSee Fig. 1. Typicallysteps are in1⁄16 in. [1 mm] increments.5.1.3 Tapered GaugeSee Fig. 2.1This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A05 on Metallic-Coated Iron and Steel Products and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA05.07 on Methods of Testing.Current edition approved May 1, 2011. Published May 2011. Originallyapproved in 2003. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as A1030/A1030M - 05.DOI 10.1520/A1030_A1030M-11.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States15.1.4 Standard Ruler or Tape Measure.5.1.5 Hand Micrometer.5.1.6 Lightweight StraightedgeRigid, but light enough notto affect the test result.6. Procedure6.1 Wavy Edge see Fig. 36.1.1 DefinitionA series of rolling direction edge devia-tions or undulations of the sheet from a recognized flat surface,having a height H and a measurable cycle length L.6.1.2 Measuring Methods6.1.2.1 With a sheet sample, or coil area, of at least 4 ft [1.2m] in length by coil width on a recognized flat surface, measurethe height H at the peak point of each wave from therecognized flat surface with a ruler, tape measure, taperedgauge, or stepblock gauge. Also measure the cycle length Lfrom peak to peak of each wave with a ruler or tape measure.6.1.3 Permissible Variations6.1.3.1 The height H of the highest peak measured inaccordance with 6.1.2.1 shall comply with applicable limits,such as found in the tables on flatness tolerances of Specifica-tions A568/A568M or A924/A924M. Note that the referencedtables apply to cut sheet that has received adequate flattening.While the wavy edge height result from a coil area stillattached to a coil is a reasonable indication of flatness, it is notbound by the limits of the referenced tables.6.1.3.2 As stated in the section on flatness tolerances ofSpecifications A568/A568M or A924/A924M, I-Unit and Steepness rejection limits are subject to agreement betweenproducer and purchaser. Using the procedures ofAppendix X1,and the readings from 6.1.2.1, determine the I-Unit and Steepness values, first using the distance between the twohighest peaks, and second using the distance between twoadjacent peaks. The highest I-Unit and Steepness valuesobtained from these two situations shall be used to determineif the specification has been met.6.1.3.3 If the I-Unit and Steepness values are supplieddirectly using a shape gauge; determine if the results are withinthe maximum specified values.6.2 Ridge Buckle, Quarter Buckle, Center Buckle see Fig.46.2.1 DefinitionBuckles are continuous deviations from arecognized flat surface, having a height H and a measurablecycle L, and usually occur in narrow width areas parallel tothe rolling direction other than at the sheet edges.6.2.2 Measuring Methods6.2.2.1 With a sheet sample, or coil area, of at least 4 ft [1.2m] by coil width resting on a recognized flat surface, place alightweight straightedge on the highest portion of a buckle andon the highest portion of the next repeating buckle. Measurethe height H between the straightedge and a strip using aruler, tape measure, tapered gauge, or stepblock gauge. Mea-sure the cycle length L from peak to peak of each buckle witha ruler or tape measure.6.2.2.2 In the case of a sheet sample, it is permissible toshear through the centerline of the flatness anomaly andmeasure as an edge wave see 6.1.2.1 using a ruler, tapemeasure, tapered gauge, or stepblock gauge.6.2.3 Permissible Variations6.2.3.1 The height H of the highest peak measured inaccordance with 6.2.2.1 or 6.2.2.2 shall comply with applicablelimits, such as found in the tables on flatness tolerances ofSpecifications A568/A568M or A924/A924M. Note that thereferenced tables apply to cut sheet that has received adequateflattening. While the buckle height result from a coil area stillattached to a coil is a reasonable indication of flatness, it is notbound by the limits of the referenced tables.6.2.3.2 As stated in the section on flatness tolerances ofSpecifications A568/A568M or A924/A924M, I-Unit and Steepness rejection limits are subject to agreement betweenproducer and purchaser. Using the procedures ofAppendix X1,NOTE 1Stepblock gauge for all thicknesses and sizes of cut sheets.NOTE 2Dimensions given are approximate overall dimensions.FIG. 1 Flatness Stepblock GaugeNOTE 1Tapered gauge for all thicknesses and sizes of cut sheets.FIG. 2 Flatness Tapered GaugeA1030/A1030M − 112and the readings from 6.2.2.1 or 6.2.2.2, determine the I-Unitand Steepness values, first using the distance between thetwo highest peaks, and second using the distance between twoadjacent peaks. The highest I-Unit and Steepness valuesobtained from these two situations shall be used to determineif the specification has been met.6.2.3.3 If the I-Unit and Steepness values are supplieddirectly using a shape gauge; determine if the results are withinthe maximum specified values.6.3 Full Center see Fig. 56.3.1 DefinitionAny overall deviation of a sheet from arecognized flat surface, having a height H and a measurablecycle L, and occurring over a major portion of the sheet widthparallel to the rolling direction other than at the sheet edges.6.3.2 Measuring Methods6.3.2.1 With a sheet sample, or a coil area, of at least 4 ft[1.2 m] by coil width resting on a recognized flat surface, placea lightweight straightedge on the highest portion of a full centerregion and on the highest portion of the next repeating regionof full center. Measure the height H between the straightedgeand the strip using a ruler, tape measure, tapered gauge, orstepblock gauge. Measure the cycle length L from peak topeak of a full center region with a ruler or tape measure.6.3.2.2 In the case of a sheet sample, it is permissible toshear through the centerline of the flatness anomaly andmeasure as an edge wave see 6.1.2.1 using a ruler, tapemeasure, tapered gauge, or stepblock gauge.6.3.3 Permissible Variations6.3.3.1 The height H of the highest peak measured inaccordance with 6.3.2.1 or 6.3.2.2 shall comply with applicablelimits, such as found in the tables on flatness tolerances ofSpecifications A568/A568M and A924/A924M. Note that thereferenced tables apply to cut sheet that has received adequateflattening. While the buckle height result from a coil area stillattached to a coil is a reasonable indication of flatness, it is notbound by the limits of the referenced tables.6.3.3.2 As stated in the section on flatness tolerances ofSpecifications A568/A568M or A924/A924M, I-Unit and Steepness rejection limits are subject to agreement betweenproducer and purchaser. Using the procedures ofAppendix X1,and the readings from 6.3.2.1 or 6.3.2.2, determine the I-Unitand Steepness values, first using the distance between thetwo highest peaks, and second using the distance between twoadjacent peaks. The highest I-Unit and Steepness valuesobtained from these two situations shall be used to determineif the specification has been met.6.3.3.3 If the I-Unit and Steepness values are supplieddirectly using a shape gauge; determine if the results are withinthe maximum specified values.6.4 Coil Set and Reverse Coil Set see Fig. 66.4.1 DefinitionAbow condition in the sheet, parallel withthe rolling direction, as measured from a recognized flatsurface. Coil set also known as positive coil set curvesdownward in the same direction as the upper outside lap of anFIG. 3 Wavy EdgeFIG. 4 Ridge Buckle, Quarter Buckle, Center BuckleA1030/A1030M − 113overwound coil. Reverse coil set also known as negative coilset curves upward, opposite to the curvature of the upperoutside lap of an overwound coil.6.4.2 Measuring Methods6.4.2.1 For coil set, place a sheet sample of approximately 4ft [1.2 m] by coil width on a recognized flat surface. Measurethe highest rise H of the sheet edges from the flat surface. Usea ruler accurate to1⁄16 in. [1 mm].FIG. 5 Full CenterFIG. 6 Coil Set and Reverse Coil SetA1030/A1030M − 1146.4.2.2 For reverse coil set, place an adequately leveledsheet sample of approximately 4 ft [1.2 m] by coil width on arecognized flat surface. Measure the highest rise H of the cutends of the sheet from the flat surface. Use a ruler accurate to1⁄16 in. [1 mm].6.4.3 Permissible Variations6.4.3.1 The height H of the highest deviation measured inaccordance with 6.4.2.1 or 6.4.2.2 shall comply with applicablelimits, such as found in the tables on flatness tolerances ofSpecifications A568/A568M or A924/A924M, or a valueagreed upon between the producer and purchaser.6.5 Crossbow and Reverse Crossbow see Fig. 76.5.1 DefinitionA bow condition in the sheet, perpendicu-lar to the rolling direction as measured from a recognized flatsurface. Crossbow also known as positive crossbow curvesdownward, with the center portion of the sheet raised ameasurable amount H above the sheet edges. Reverse cross-bow also known as negative crossbow curves upward, withthe edges of the sheet raised a measurable amount H abovethe center portion of the sheet. The degree of cross bow isdetermined in a horizontal position on a recognized flatsurface.6.5.2 Measuring Methods6.5.2.1 For crossbow, place a sheet sample, or coil area, ofapproximately 4 ft [1.2 m] by coil width on a recognized flatsurface. Measure the highest rise H of the center of the sheetfrom the flat surface. Use a ruler accurate to1⁄16 in. [1 mm].6.5.2.2 For reverse crossbow, place an adequately leveledsheet sample, or coil area, of approximately 4 ft [1.2 m] by coilwidth on a recognized flat surface. Measure the highest rise Hof the edges of the sheet from the flat surface. Use a ruleraccurate to1⁄16 in. [1 mm] or a lightweight straightedge asrequired.6.5.3 Permissible Variations6.5.3.1 The height H of the highest deviation measured inaccordance with 6.5.2.1 or 6.5.2.2 shall comply with applicablelimits, such as found in the tables on flatness tolerances ofSpecifications A568/A568M or A924/A924M, or a valueagreed upon between the producer and purchaser.6.6 Camber see Fig. 86.6.1 DefinitionThe greatest deviation of a coil edge froma straight line. The measurement is taken on the concave sideand is the perpendicular distance from a straight line to thepoint of maximum deviation A.6.6.2 Measuring MethodsFIG. 7 Crossbow and Reverse CrossbowA1030/A1030M − 1156.6.2.1 Lay a sample of at least 20 ft [6 m] next torecognized straightedge. The perpendicular distance A ismeasured using a ruler accurate to1⁄16 in. [1 mm].6.6.2.2 Cut two 20 ft [6 m] consecutive sections from themaster coil. Butt togeth

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