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ASTM A1028 - 03 (2015).pdf

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ASTM A1028 - 03 (2015).pdf

Designation A1028 − 03 Reapproved 2015Standard Specification forStainless Steel Bars for Compressor and Turbine Airfoils1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1028; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers stainless steel bars for com-pressor and turbine bucket, blade, and airfoil applications.1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regardedas standard. No other units of measurement are included in thisstandard.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A275/A275M Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination ofSteel ForgingsA484/A484M Specification for General Requirements forStainless Steel Bars, Billets, and ForgingsA700 Guide for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Methodsfor Steel Products for ShipmentA941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, RelatedAlloys, and FerroalloysE112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain SizeE292 Test Methods for Conducting Time-for-Rupture NotchTension Tests of MaterialsE381 Method of Macroetch Testing Steel Bars, Billets,Blooms, and ForgingsE562 Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction bySystematic Manual Point Count3. Terminology3.1 Refer to Terminology A941 for definitions of terms usedin this standard.4. Ordering Information4.1 It is the responsibility of the purchaser to specify allrequirements that are necessary for product under this specifi-cation. Such requirements to be considered may include but arenot limited to the following4.1.1 Quantity weight or number of pieces.4.1.2 Grade and Class Table 3.4.1.3 Applicable dimensions including size, thickness,width, and length.4.1.4 Whether bars are to be rolled as bars or cut from plate.4.1.5 Supplementary Requirements.5. General Requirements5.1 Product furnished to this specification shall conform tothe requirements of Specification A484/A484M including anysupplementary requirements that are indicated in the purchaseorder. Failure to comply with the general requirements ofSpecification A484/A484M constitutes nonconformance withthis specification.5.2 In case of conflict between the requirements of thisspecification and Specification A484/A484M, this specificationshall prevail.6. Manufacture6.1 Melting ProcessThe steel shall be made using theBasic Electric Furnace Process with Argon-Oxygen-Decarburization AOD refining or by Vacuum Ladle Degas-sing. Use of Electro-Slag Remelting is permitted unless other-wise specified by the purchaser see SupplementalRequirement S1.6.2 Heat TreatmentHeat treating of all bars is required inaccordance with Table 1 to develop the required mechanicalproperties.6.2.1 Number of Heat TreatmentsTwo complete heattreatments, consisting of an austenitize, quench and temper, arepermitted. Purchaser approval is required prior to any addi-tional heat treatments.6.2.2 Temperature VariationHeat treating temperaturesshall be controlled in the range of 625F.6.3 Stress ReliefWhen heat treatment for mechanicalproperties is followed by straightening, a stress relieving heattreatment is required in accordance with Table 1.6.3.1 Quenching after Stress ReliefWater or oil quenchingof stress-relieved bars is prohibited.7. Chemical Composition7.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements for chemicalcomposition prescribed in Table 2.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.17 on Flat-Rolled and Wrought Stainless Steel.Current edition approved March 1, 2015. Published March 2015. Originallyapproved in 2003. Last previous edition approved in 2009 as A1028 – 03 2009.DOI 10.1520/A1028-03R15.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States18. Mechanical Properties8.1 Lot SizeA lot shall consist of all bars of the same sizefrom one electric furnace heat of steel and heat treated, eitherin the same charge in either a batch furnace or a continuoustype furnace.8.2 Hardness TestsAll testing shall be performed afterheat treatment and stress relief, as applicable. The test speci-mens shall meet the requirements of Table 3.8.2.1 Number of TestsA minimum of four bars or 10 ofthe lot, whichever is less, shall be tested on each end.8.3 Tensile and Impact TestsOne room temperature tensiletest and two room temperature Charpy V-Notch Impact testsshall be taken from the softest and hardest Bar in each lot ofmaterial. Impact tests are only required on bars or shapes1⁄2 in.or larger in minor dimension.8.3.1 Test Specimen LocationThe axis of the specimenshall be located at the center of the bars up to and including 11⁄2in. width. For bars over 11⁄2 in. width, the axes of the specimenshall be located midway between the center and the edgecorner of the bar.9. Workmanship and Nondestructive Examination9.1 General RequirementsAll bars shall be free of cracks,fissures, seams, laps, bursts, shrinkage, and similar disconti-nuities.9.2 Nondestructive TestsNondestructive testing and corre-sponding acceptance criteria shall be as specified by thepurchaser.10. Dimensions, Tolerances, and Finish10.1 Hot-rolled or cold-finished bar, or both, shall befurnished to the tolerances permissible variations in Specifi-cation A484/A484M, with the following additional require-ments10.1.1 All tolerances except straightness and length shall beplus over with no minus − under tolerance allowed.The total spread in tolerance for any specific size shall be equalto the total spread allowed in Specification A484/A484M.10.2 Flat bar with ordered sizes greater than rolling millcapabilities may be produced by a forging or blooming millTABLE 1 Heat Treatment, FGrade A Grade B Grade C Grade D Grade E Grade FClasses 1 and 2 Class 1 Class 1 Class 2 Classes 1 and 2 Class 1 Class 2 Class 1Austenitizing 1725-1775 1600-1750 1825 to 1875 1725 to 1875 1875 to 1925 2075 to 2125 1725 to 1775 1875 to 1925Quenching Air or liquid Air or liquid Air or liquid Air or liquid Air or liquid Air or liquid Air or liquid Air or liquidFirst temper 1100 min 1100 min 1050 min 1000 min 1150 min 1250 min 1100 min . . .Second temper . . . . . . 1025 min 1000 min . . . . . . . . . . . .Aging ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1135to1165Stress Relieving 1065 min 1065 min 1000 min 1000 min 1100 min 1200 min 1050 min 1100 minTABLE 2 Chemical RequirementsComposition Grade A Grade B Grade C Grade D Grade E Grade FUNS Designation S41000 S41005 S41428 S42225 S41041 S17400Carbon 0.15 max 0.10 to 0.15 0.10 to 0.17 0.20 to 0.25 0.13 to 0.18 0.07 maxManganese 1.0 max 0.25 to 0.80 0.65 to 1.05 0.5 to 1.0 0.4 to 0.6 1.0 maxPhosphorus, max 0.018 0.018 0.020 0.020 0.030 0.040Sulfur, max 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.010 0.030 0.030Silicon 0.5 max 0.5 max 0.10 to 0.35 0.20 to 0.50 0.5 max 1.0 maxNickel 0.75 max 0.75 max 2.25 to 3.25 0.5 to 1.0 0.5 max 3.0 to 5.0Chromium 11.5 to 13.0 11.5 to 13.0 11.25 to 12.75 11.0 to 12.5 11.5 to 13.0 15.0 to 17.5Molybdenum 0.5 max 0.5 max 1.5 to 2.0 0.9 to 1.25 0.20 max . . .Vanadium . . . Report only 0.25 to 0.40 0.20 to 0.30 . . . . . .Tungsten . . . 0.10 max 0.10 max 0.9 to 1.25 . . . . . .Nitrogen . . . 0.08 max 0.020 to 0.045 Report only . . . . . .Aluminum . . . 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.05 max . . .Columbium . . . 0.20 max . . . 0.05 max 0.15 to 0.45 0.15 to 0.45Cobalt . . . . . . . . . 0.20 max . . . . . .Titanium . . . 0.05 max 0.05 max 0.025 max . . . . . .Copper . . . 0.50 max 0.50 max 0.15 max . . . 3.0 to 5.0Tin . . . 0.05 max 0.05 max 0.02 max . . . . . .TABLE 3 Tensile, Impact, and Hardness RequirementsGrade A Grade B Grade C Grade D Grade E Grade FClass 1 Class 2 Class 1 Class 1 Class 2 Class 1 Class 2 Class 1 Class 2 Class 1Tensile strength, min, ksi 100 110 110 145 160 140 140 115 110 135Yield strength, min, ksi, 0.2 offset 70 80 90 115 120 90 100 75 80 105Elongation in 2 in., min, 20 18 18 15 16 13 13 15 18 16Reduction of area, min, 60 50 50 30 50 30 35 50 55 50Impact strength, min, av., Cv, Rt, ft-lb 30 25 30 30 40 8 10 20 25 41Hardness, Brinell, max 255 269 269 352 375 331 331 277 262 341A1028 − 03 20152process, or combination thereof. Such material shall conformto the following tolerances10.2.1 Material produced by the blooming mill process shallhave a normal thickness tolerance with a special allowablewidth tolerance of plus 0.250 in. with no minus − undertolerance.10.2.2 Material produced by the forging process shall havespecial tolerances as agreed upon by the Purchaser and theSupplier.11. Certification11.1 All tests required by this specification shall be made bythe manufacturer and reported on a certificate of test to thepurchaser. Each test certificate shall include the followingitems11.1.1 Purchase order number.11.1.2 Specification number and year date of issue, grade,and class.11.1.3 Heat number.11.1.4 Lot number and size.11.1.5 Mechanical properties including tension, impact, andhardness.11.1.6 Heat treatment and stress relief temperatures andtimes.11.1.7 Results of any specified supplementary requirements.11.1.8 Statement that the bars were manufactured, sampled,tested, and inspected in accordance with this specification andthat the results satisfied the requirements.12. Product Marking12.1 The packing, marking, and loading methods describedin Practices A700 shall be used.13. Keywords13.1 compressor airfoils; martensitic stainless steel; stain-less steel bar; turbine airfoilsSUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTSThe following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified by the purchaser in theinquiry, contract, and order. Details of these supplementary requirements shall be agreed upon by themanufacturer and purchaser.S1. Secondary Melting and RefiningS1.1 ESR or VAR is required. Use of either is permittedunless otherwise specified.S2. Ingot Chemical AnalysisS2.1 If consumable electrode remelting is used, then chemi-cal analyses of each remelted ingot shall meet the chemicalcomposition requirements listed and shall be reported.S3. MacrostructureS3.1 Samples shall be taken from the top and bottom of thefirst and last ingot of each heat. The structure of the startingbillets shall meet the criteria of Method E381, S-3, R-2, C-3 ≤36 in.2, and S-3, R-3, C-3 36 in.2S4. Heat Treatment of Cold-Finished ShapesS4.1 Cold-finished shapes shall be re-austenitized in avacuum or inert atmosphere at the temperatures listed in Table1, accelerated gas cooled, tempered, and uniformly cooledbelow the martensite finish temperature. Oxidation of thesurface resulting in decarburization or scale formation is notpermitted.S5. Magnetic Particle InspectionS5.1 Each bar shall be magnetic particle inspected inaccordance with Test Method A275/A275M. The maximumacceptable indication size shall be1⁄8 in. unless otherwisespecified by the purchaser.S6. Nondestructive ExaminationGrade DS6.1 MethodEach bar shall be subjected to NDE. Themethod used shall be Eddy Current ET, Magnetic ParticleMPI wet or dry, Liquid Penetrant LPI, or Ultrasonic UT,at the option of the vendor unless otherwise indicated in thepurchase order.S6.2 Acceptance CriteriaFor LPI or MPI, linear indica-tions those indications longer than1⁄16 in. with a length greaterthan three times their width are unacceptable. For UT or ET,reject levels for linear indications shall be based on the alarmresponse from a 0.012-in. maximum deep surface notch in acalibration bar.S7. MicrostructureS7.1 The microstructure shall be uniformly fine grain tem-pered martensite with no more than 1 delta ferrite as etchedwith “Vilella’s” etchant.S7.2 Metallographic inspection shall be performed at 100magnification to determine the metallurgical structure, grainsize, decarburization, and delta ferrite content. Visual estima-tion for the volume fraction of delta ferrite of various repre-sentative areas of examination is acceptable. When the visualestimation method indicates the delta ferrite content is greaterthan the allowed limit, the manufacturer may employ TestMethod E562 for determining the acceptability of a lot.S7.3 Grades A, B, and Grade E Class 2 shall have anaverage grain size of ASTM 5 or finer as determined inaccordance with Test Methods E112. The maximum size ofindividual grains, distributed at random, shall be ASTM 3.A1028 − 03 20153S7.4 Grades C and D shall have an average grain size ofASTM 4 or finer as determined in accordance with TestMethods E112. The maximum size of individual grains,distributed at random, shall be ASTM 3.S8. DecarburizationS8.1 Surface decarburization of bars shall not exceed 0.06in. [1.5 mm].S9. Minimum Hardness RequirementsS9.1 When agreed upon by the purchaser and producer, aminimum hardness value is required.S10. Stress Rupture TestingGrade DS10.1 Stress rupture testing shall be conducted at 1200Fand 26 000 psi using a combination test bar in accordance withTest Methods E292. Rupture must occur in the smooth sectionof each test specimen. The test may be discontinued after 25 h,provided the certification so notes. Stress rupture testing is notrequired on bars less than1⁄2 in. in diameter or thickness.S10.2 One test shall be made for each heat treat lot.S11. SquarenessS11.1 Out of square is defined as the difference between thetwo diagonal measurements of a square or flat bar. Materialless than 5 in. in width that has been hot rolled shall meet thefollowing criteriaSpecified Thickness,in.Maximum Out of Square,in.0.25 to 0.32 0.014Over 0.32 to 0.44 0.015Over 0.44 to 0.63 0.017Over 0.63 to 0.88 0.018Over 0.88 to 1.00 0.018Over 1.00 to 1.12 0.021Over 1.12 to 1.25 0.023Over 1.25 to 1.37 0.025Over 1.37 to 1.50 0.030Over 1.50 to 2.00 0.034Over 2.00 to 2.50 0.038ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standardsand should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of theresponsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not rec

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