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ASTM A1023 - A 1023M - 15.pdf

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ASTM A1023 - A 1023M - 15.pdf

Designation A1023/A1023M − 15Standard Specification forStranded Carbon Steel Wire Ropes for General Purposes1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1023/A1023M; the number immediately following the designation indicates theyear of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of lastreapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers the general requirements forthe more common types of stranded steel wire ropes. Includedin this specification are wire ropes in various grades andconstructions from1⁄4 in. [6 mm] to 23⁄8 in. [60 mm] manufac-tured from uncoated or metallic coated wire. Also included arecord products from1⁄32 in. [0.8 mm] to3⁄8 in. [10 mm]manufactured from metallic coated wire. For specificapplications, additional or alternative requirements may apply.1.2 The values stated in either inch-pounds or SI units are tobe regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI unitsare shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are notexact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used inde-pendently of the other. Combining values from the two systemsmay result in nonconformance with the specification.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A931 Test Method for Tension Testing of Wire Ropes andStrandA1007 Specification for Carbon Steel Wire for Wire Rope2.2 ISO Standards3ISO 2232 Round Drawn Wire for General-Purpose Non-alloy Steel Wire RopesISO 3108 Steel Wire Ropes for General PurposesDetermination of Actual Breaking3. TerminologyDescription of Terms Specific to this Specification3.1 inserts, nfiber or solid polymer so positioned as toseparate adjacent strands or wires in the same or overlyinglayers or to fill interstices of the rope.3.2 Lubrication3.2.1 impregnating compound, nmaterial used in themanufacture of natural fiber cores, covers, or inserts for thepurpose of providing protection against rotting and decay ofthe fiber material.3.2.2 preservation compound, nmaterial, usually contain-ing some form of blocking agent, applied during, after, or bothduring and after manufacture of the rope to fiber inserts, fillers,and coverings for the purpose of providing protection againstcorrosion.3.2.3 rope lubricant, ngeneral term used to signify mate-rial applied during the manufacture of a strand, core, or ropefor the purpose of reducing internal friction, providing protec-tion against corrosion, or both.3.3 rope cores, ncentral element, usually of fiber or steelbut may be a combination of both, of a round rope aroundwhich are laid helically the strands of a stranded rope or theunit ropes of a cable-laid rope Fig. 1.3.3.1 fiber core FC, nan element made from eithernatural or synthetic fibers.3.3.2 solid polymer core, na single element of solidpolymer material that is either cylindrical or shaped grooved.It may also include an element or elements of wire or fiber.3.3.3 steel core, na stranded rope IWRC, or a roundstrand WSC construction. The round strand or the strandedrope core or its outer strands, or both, may also be covered orfilled with either fiber or solid polymer. Steel cores arenormally made as a separate independent element, the excep-tion being rope with a stranded rope core closed parallel withthe outer strands.3.4 strand, nan element of rope normally consisting of anassembly of wires of appropriate shape and dimensions laidhelically in one or more layers around a center. The center mayconsist of one round or shaped wire, of several round wiresforming a built-up center, or of fiber or some other material. Ifmultiple wires are used in a strand center, they may be countedas one wire.3.4.1 Cross-Section Shape3.4.1.1 compacted strand, na strand that has been sub-jected to a compacting process such as drawing, rolling, orswaging Fig. 2.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloysand is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.03 on Steel Rod and Wire.Current edition approved May 1, 2015. Published June 2015. Originallyapproved in 2002. Last previous edition approved in 2009 as A1023/A1023M – 09ε2. DOI 10.1520/A1023_A1023M-15.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3Available from International Organization for Standardization ISO, 1 rue deVaremb, Case postale 56, CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland, http//www.iso.ch.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States13.4.1.2 round strand, nstrand having a perpendicularcross-section that is approximately the shape of a circle Fig.3.3.4.1.3 triangular strand, nstrand having a perpendicularcross-section that is approximately the shape of a triangleformerly referred to as flattened strand Fig. 4.a Style BSolid center wire.b Style G32 or 323F center.c Style H3 or 33F center.d Style V17 center.3.4.2 strand lay direction, nthe direction right z or lefts corresponding to the direction of lay of the outer wires inrelation to the longitudinal axis of the strand Fig. 5.3.4.3 Type and Constructions3.4.3.1 multiple operation lay, nconstruction containing atleast two layers of wires in which successive layers are laid inmore than one operation, with different lay lengths. There aretwo basic types of multiple operation stranda compound lay, nstrand that contains a minimum ofthree layers of wires where a minimum of one layer is laid ina separate operation, but in the same direction, over a parallellay center.b cross-lay, nstrand in which the wires are laid in thesame direction. The wires of superimposed wire layers crossone another and make point contact.3.4.3.2 parallel lay, nstrand that contains at least twolayers of wires, all of which are laid in one operation in thesame direction. The lay length of all the wire layers is equal,and the wires of any two superimposed layers are parallel toeach other, resulting in linear contact. There are four types ofparallel lay constructionsa combined, adjdescribes a parallel lay constructionhaving three or more layers laid in one operation and formedfrom a combination of the above, for example, Warrington-Seale construction Fig. 6a.b filler F, adjdescribes a construction having outerlayer containing twice the number of wires than the inner layer,with filler wires laid in the interstices between the layers. Fillerwires are designated with the letter “F” Fig. 6b.c Seale S, adjdescribes a construction having samenumber of wires in each layer, for example, 9-9-1 Fig. 6c.d Warrington W, adjdescribes a construction havingouter Warrington layer containing alternately large and smallwires and twice the number of wires as the inner layer.Warrington layers are designated by listing the number of largeand small wires with a sign in between and bracketingthelayer, for example, 66 Fig. 6d.NOTE 1Strand construction is designated by listing the number ofwires, beginning with the outer wires, with each layer separated by ahyphen.3.4.3.3 single lay, nstrand that contains only one layer ofwires.3.5 stranded wire rope, nan assembly of strands laidhelically in one or more layers around a core. Exceptions arestranded wire ropes consisting of three or four outer strandsthat may or may not be laid around a core. Elements ofstranded wire rope are shown in Fig. 7.3.6 Wires3.6.1 finish and quality of coating, nthe condition of thesurface finish of the wire, that is, uncoated or metallic coatedzinc or zinc alloy.3.6.1.1 metallic coated wire, ncarbon steel wire that has ametallic coating.a drawn-galvanized wire, ncoated carbon steel wirewith a zinc coating applied prior to the final wire drawingoperation, that is, galvanized in process.b drawn-Zn5/Al-MM wire, ncoated carbon steel wirewith a zinc-aluminum alloy mischmetal coating applied priorto the final wire drawing operation.c final-coated Zn5/Al-MM wire, ncoated carbon steelwire with a zinc-aluminum alloy mischmetal coating appliedafter the final wire drawing operation.d final-galvanized wire, ncoated carbon steel wire witha zinc coating applied after the final wire drawing operation,that is, galvanized at finished size.3.6.1.2 uncoated wire, ncarbon steel wire that does nothave a metallic coating. Commonly referred to as bright wire.3.6.2 Function3.6.2.1 filler wires, ncomparatively small wires used incertain constructions of parallel lay ropes to create the neces-sary number of interstices for supporting the next layer ofcovering wires.3.6.2.2 load-bearing wires main wires, nthose wires in arope that are considered as contributing toward the breakingforce of the rope.3.6.2.3 non-load-bearing wires, nthose wires in a ropethat are considered as not contributing toward the breakingforce of the rope.3.6.2.4 seizing serving wires or strands, nsingle wires orstrands used for making a close-wound helical serving to retainthe elements of a rope in their assembled position.3.6.3 layer of wires, nan assembly of wires having onepitch diameter. The exception is a Warrington layer comprisinglarge and small wires where the smaller wires are positioned ona larger pitch circle than the larger wires. The first layer ofwires is that which is laid over the strand center. Filler wires donot constitute a separate layer.3.6.4 PositionFIG. 1 Examples of CoresA1023/A1023M − 1523.6.4.1 center wires, nwires positioned at the center of astrand of a stranded rope.3.6.4.2 core wires, nall wires comprising the core of astranded rope.3.6.4.3 inner wires, nall wires except center, filler, core,and outer wires in a stranded rope.3.6.4.4 outer wires, nall wires in the outer layer of theouter strands of a stranded rope.Dimensional Characteristics3.7 Diameter of Rope3.7.1 diameter of plastic-coated rope, nthe diameter thatcircumscribes the overall rope cross-section including thecover followed by the diameter, which circumscribes theunderlying rope for example,3⁄4 5⁄8 in..3.7.2 diameter of round rope, nthe diameter d thatcircumscribes the rope cross-section. Diameter is expressed ininches or millimeters Fig. 8.3.8 Lay Length3.8.1 rope lay length, nthat distance measured parallel tothe longitudinal rope axis in which the outer strands of astranded rope or the component ropes of a cable-laid rope makeone complete turn or helix about the axis of the rope Fig. 9.3.8.2 strand lay length, nthat distance measured parallelto the longitudinal strand axis, in which the wire in the strandmakes one complete turn or helix about the axis of the strand.The lay length of a strand is that corresponding to the outerlayers of wires Fig. 9.Manufacture Rope3.9 Preformation3.9.1 non-preformed rope, nrope in which the wires andstrands in the rope will, after removal of any seizing serving,spring out of the rope formation.3.9.2 preformed rope, nrope in which the wires andstrands in the rope will not, after removal of any seizingserving, spring out of the rope formation.3.10 prestretching, nthe name given to a process thatresults in the removal of a limited amount of constructionalstretch.Mechanical Properties3.11 Rope3.11.1 actual measured breaking force, nbreaking forceobtained using the prescribed test method in Test Method A931or ISO 3108.3.11.2 calculated breaking force, nvalue of breaking forceobtained from the sum of the measured breaking forces of thewires in the rope, before rope making, multiplied by themeasured spinning loss factor as determined by the ropemanufacturer’s design.FIG. 2 Compacted Round StrandBefore and AfterFIG. 3 Round StrandFIG. 4 Triangular StrandFIG. 5 Lay Direction of Strands for Stranded RopesA1023/A1023M − 1533.11.3 measured spinning loss factor, nratio between themeasured breaking force of the rope and the sum of themeasured breaking forces of the wires, before rope making.3.11.4 minimum breaking force, nspecified value that theactual measured breaking force must meet or exceed in aprescribed test.3.12 Rope Stretch Extension3.12.1 constructional stretch extension, namount of ex-tension that is attributed to the initial bedding down of wireswithin the strands and the strands within the rope due toloading. Initial extension cannot be determined by calculation.3.12.2 elastic stretch extension, namount of recoverableextension that follows Hooke’s law within certain limits due toapplication of a load.3.12.3 permanent stretch extension, nnon-elastic exten-sion.3.13 Wire3.13.1 torsions, na measure of wire ductility normallyexpressed as the number of 360 revolutions that a wire canwithstand before breakage occurs, using a prescribed testmethod. Torsion requirements are based on the wire diameterand either the wire level, as specified in Specification A1007,or the tensile strength grade, as specified in ISO 2232.3.13.2 wire tensile strength, nratio between the maximumforce obtained in a tensile test and the nominal cross-sectionalarea of the test piece. Requirements for wire tensile strengthare determined by either the wire level, as specified inSpecification A1007, or by the tensile strength grade, asspecified in ISO 2232.3.13.2.1 tensile strength grade, na level of requirementfor tensile strength based on the SI system of units. It isdesignated by a value according to the lower limit of tensilestrength and is used when specifying wire. Values are ex-pressed in N/mm2for example, 1960.3.13.2.2 wire level, na level of requirement for tensilestrength based on the inch-pound system of units for example,Level 3.Terminology Relating to Ropes3.14 Rope Classification and Construction3.14.1 rope classification, na grouping of ropes of similarcharacteristics on the basis of, for stranded ropes, the numberof strands and their shape, the number of strand layers, thenumber of wires in one strand, the number of outer wires in onestrand, and the number of wire layers in one strand. Forclassification details, refer to Table 2.3.14.2 rope construction, ndetail and arrangement of thevarious elements of the rope, taking into account the number ofstrands, and the number of wires in the strand. For constructiondetails, refer to Tables 7-32.AExample of Combined Parallel Lay ex. 31WS, 12-66-6-1BFiller Construction ex. 25F, 12-6F-6-1CSeale Construction ex. 19S, 9-9-1DWarrington Construction ex. 19W, 66-6-1FIG. 6 Parallel Lay ConstructionsFIG. 7 Elements of Stranded Wire RopeFIG. 8 Diameter of Round RopeA1023/A1023M − 1543.14.2.1 DiscussionRope construction is designated bylisting the number of outer strands followed by the number ofwires in each strand and the designation for the type ofconstruction

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