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ASTM A1021 - A 1021M - 05 (2015).pdf

Designation A1021/A1021M − 05 Reapproved 2015Standard Specification forMartensitic Stainless Steel Forgings and Forging Stock forHigh-Temperature Service1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1021/A1021M; the number immediately following the designation indicates theyear of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of lastreapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers martensitic chromium stainlesssteel forgings, forged bar, and forging stock for high tempera-ture service. The mechanical properties are developed bysuitable heat treatment, as indicated for each alloy.1.2 This specification is expressed in both inch-pound unitsand in SI units; however, unless the purchase order or contractspecifies the applicable M specification designation SI units,the inch-pound units shall apply. The values stated in eitherinch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately asstandard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets.The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents;therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other.Combining values from the two systems may result in noncon-formance with the standard.1.3 Supplementary requirements of an optional nature areprovided for use at the option of the purchaser. The supple-mentary requirements shall apply only when specified indi-vidually by the purchaser in the purchase order or contract.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A275/A275M Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination ofSteel ForgingsA370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA788/A788M Specification for Steel Forgings, General Re-quirementsE112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain SizeE292 Test Methods for Conducting Time-for-Rupture NotchTension Tests of MaterialsE381 Method of Macroetch Testing Steel Bars, Billets,Blooms, and ForgingsE562 Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction bySystematic Manual Point Count3. Ordering Information3.1 In addition to the ordering information required bySpecification A788/A788M, the purchaser shall specify thegrade designation, heat treatment condition, class and finish,and include a sketch or written description of the forging withthe inquiry and order.4. General Requirements4.1 Materials supplied to this specification shall conform tothe requirements of Specification A788/A788M, including anysupplementary requirements that are indicated in the purchaseorder. Failure to comply with the general requirements ofSpecification A788/A788M constitutes non-conformance withthis specification. In case of conflict between the requirementsof this specification and Specification A788/A788M, thisspecification shall prevail.5. Manufacture5.1 Melting ProcessAll melting processes of SpecificationA788/A788M are permitted unless the purchaser invokesSupplementary Requirement S1.5.2 Forging ProcessEither the closed impression die orthe open die, including ring rolling, forging processes may beutilized unless the purchaser specifies a process.5.3 Heat TreatmentQuenched and tempered classes shallbe heat-treated in accordance with Table 1.5.3.1 Number of Heat TreatmentsHeat treatment as de-fined in Table 1 shall consist of austenitizing, quenching, andtempering. Retempering is permitted but purchaser approval isrequired for more than one complete reheat treatment.1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.06 on Steel Forgings and Billets.Current edition approved March 1, 2015. Published March 2015. Originallyapproved in 2001. Last previous edition approved in 2010 as A1021/A1021M – 052010. DOI 10.1520/A1021_A1021M-05R15.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States15.4 Stress ReliefWhen heat treatment for mechanicalproperties is followed by straightening, a stress-relieving heattreatment is required in accordance with Table 1.5.4.1 Quenching after Stress ReliefLiquid quenching ofstress-relieved forgings is prohibited.5.5 FinishForgings may be furnished in one of the fol-lowing hot-finished conditions5.5.1 Finish FAs forged without descaling.5.5.2 Finish FDForged and descaled.5.5.3 Finish RTRough turned or rough machined to speci-fied dimensions. Billets or blooms ordered as forging stockshall be furnished with a ground, machined, or descaled surfaceunless otherwise specified in the ordering document.5.6 CamberCamber shall not exceed1⁄4 in. [5 mm] in 5 ft[150 cm].6. Chemical Composition6.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements for chemicalcomposition prescribed in Table 2.7. Mechanical Properties7.1 Tension, Impact, Stress Rupture, and Hardness TestsAll testing shall be performed after heat treatment and stressrelief, as applicable. The material and test specimens shall meetthe requirements of Table 3 if fully heat-treated or Table 4 ifannealed. Mechanical property requirements, includinghardness, do not apply to forging stock when it is to be testedafter forging and heat treatment.7.2 Test SpecimensForgings may be lot tested. Test speci-mens may be obtained from production forgings or fromseparately forged test blanks prepared from the stock used tomake the finished part. Forgings that are lot tested shall beproduced from the same heat of steel and heat treated at thesame time. Separately forged test blanks shall receive essen-tially the same type of hot-working and forging reduction asthe production forgings; however, a longitudinally forged barwith dimensions not less than T by T by 3 T may be used torepresent a ring forging. The dimension T shall be representa-tive of the heaviest effective cross section of the forging.7.3 Test Specimen OrientationMechanical property re-quirements are for samples oriented in the direction of grainflow. Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order, manu-facturers may orient the samples in any direction provided themechanical property requirements are met.7.4 Test Specimen LocationWhen transverse or circumfer-ential specimens are tested, they shall be taken from as close asTABLE 1 Heat Treatment, F [C]Grade A Grade B Grade C Grade D Grade E Grade FClass12 Class1 Class1 Class2 Class12 Class1 Class2Austenitizing 1725-1775[940-970]1600-1750[870-955]1825-1875[995-1025]1725-1875[940-1025]1875-1925[1025-1050]2075-2125[1135-1165]1725-1775[940-970]2000–2050[1095–1120]Quenching Air or liquid Air or liquid Air or liquid Air or liquid Air or liquid Air or liquid Air or liquid Rapid air or oilSingle Tempering 1050 min[565 min]1050 min[565 min]1050 min[565 min]1050 min[565 min]1150 min[620 min]1250 min[675 min]1100 min[595 min]1185 min[640] minDoubleTempering. . . . . . 1025 min[550 min]1025 min[550 min]... ... ... ...Stress Relieving 1025 min[550 min]1025 min[550 min]1000 min[540 min]1000 min[540 min]1100 min[595 min]1200 min[650 min]1050 min[565 min]1135 min[610] minTABLE 2 Chemical RequirementsAComposition Grade A Grade B Grade C Grade D Grade E Grade FUNS Designation S41005 S41428 S42225TypeSimilar to 403/410 SSUNS S41000403/410 SSMOD.XM-32 Mod 422 SS UNS S41041 UNS S42226Carbon 0.15 0.10-0.15 0.10-0.17 0.20.-0.25 0.13-0.18 0.15–0.20Manganese 1.00 0.25-0.80 0.65-1.05 0.50-1.00 0.40-0.60 0.50–0.80Phosphorus 0.018 0.018 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.020Sulfur 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.010 0.030 0.010Silicon 1.00 0.50 0.35 0.50 0.50 0.20–0.60Nickel 0.75 0.75 2.25-3.25 0.50-1.00 0.50 0.30–0.60Chromium 11.5-13.5 11.5-13.0 11.25-12.75 11.0-12.5 11.5-13.0 10.0–11.5Molybdenum 0.50 0.50 1.50-2.00 0.90-1.25 0.20 0.80–1.10Vanadium . . . Report only 0.25-0.40 0.20-0.30 . . . 0.15–0.25Tungsten . . . 0.10 0.10 0.9-1.25 . . . 0.25Nitrogen . . . 0.08 0.020-0.045 Report only . . . 0.04–0.08Aluminum . . . 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.050 0.05Columbium . . . 0.20 . . . . . . 0.15-0.45 0.35–0.55Cobalt . . . . . . . . . 0.20 . . . 0.25Titanium . . . 0.05 0.05 0.025 . . . 0.05Copper . . . 0.50 0.50 0.50 . . . ...Tin . . . 0.05 0.05 0.02 . . . 0.04Lead 0.005AMaximum or range unless otherwise specified.A1021/A1021M − 05 20152possible to a mid-radius or mid-wall location of the forging.When longitudinal specimens are tested, they shall be takenfrom extensions. Extending the axial length of a larger sectionof a forging for a sufficient distance over a smaller section isalso an acceptable location for transverse or circumferentialspecimens.7.5 Number Of TestsWhere more than one location isdesignated on a forging drawing, tension tests shall be madefrom each location.7.6 HardnessThe manufacturer shall perform Brinell orRockwell hardness testing after final heat treatment and aftermachining to the forging drawing requirements.7.7 Stress rupture testing of Grade F shall be conducted inaccordance with Table 5 using a combination test bar inaccordance with Test Methods E292. Rupture must occur in thesmooth section of each test specimen. The test may bediscontinued after the time specified, provided notation in thecertification. Stress rupture testing is not required on bars lessthan1⁄2 in. in diameter or thickness.8. Keywords8.1 martensitic stainless steel; stainless steel billets; stain-less steel forgingsSUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTSThe following supplementary requirements shall apply only when specified by the purchaser in thecontract or order.S1. Secondary Melting and RefiningS1.1 ESR or VAR is required. Use of either is permittedunless otherwise specified.S2. Ingot Chemical AnalysisS2.1 If consumable electrode remelting is used, then chemi-cal analyses of each remelted ingot shall meet the chemicalcomposition requirements listed and shall be reported.S3. MacrostructureS3.1 Samples shall be taken from the top and bottom of thefirst and last ingot of each heat. The structure of the startingbillets shall meet the criteria of Method E381, S-3, R-2, C-3 ≤36 in.2[0.84 m2] and S-3, R-3, C-3 36 in.2[0.84 m2].S4. Magnetic Particle InspectionS4.1 Each forging shall be magnetic particle inspected inaccordance with Practice A275/A275M. The maximum accept-able indication size shall be1⁄8 in. [3 mm] unless otherwisespecified by the purchaser.S5. Ultrasonic InspectionS5.1 Ultrasonic inspection is required. The test method,location, and acceptance criteria shall be as agreed upon by thepurchaser and producer.S6. MicrostructureS6.1 The microstructure shall be tempered martensite withno more than 2 delta ferrite.TABLE 3 Mechanical PropertiesQuenched Tempered ClassesGrade A Grade B Grade C Grade D Grade E Grade FClass 1 Class 2 Class 1 Class 1 Class 2 Class 1 Class 2 Class 1 Class 2 Class 1Tensile strength,KSI min [MPa]100 [690] 110 [760] 110 [760] 145 [1000] 160 [1105] 140 [965] 140 [965] 115 [795] 110 [760] 140 [965]Yield Strength min,KSI [MPa], 0.2 Offset70 [485] 80 [550] 90 [620] 115 [795] 120 [825] 90 [620] 100 [690] 75 [515] 80 [550] 100 [690]Elongation in 2 in., min 20 18 18 15 16 13 13 15 18 15Reduction of area, min, 60 50 50 30 50 30 35 50 55 45Impact Strength, min, avg.,CV, RT, ft-lb [J]30 [41] 25 [34] 30 [41] 30 [41] 40 [54] 8 [11] 13 [18] 20 [27] 25 [34] 8 [11]Impact Strength,min of one specimenper Test Methods A370,CV, RT, ft-lb [J]20 [27] 17 [23] 20 [27] 20 [27] 27 [36] 5 [7] 9 [12] 13 [18] 17 [23] 5 [7]Hardness, Brinell, max 255 269 269 352 375 331 331 277 262 321Hardness, Rockwell C, max 26 28 28 38 40 36 36 29 27 34TABLE 4 Mechanical PropertiesAnnealed ClassesGrade A Grade B Grade C Grade D Grade E Grade FClass 3 Class 2 Class 3 Class 3 Class 3 Class 2Hardness, Brinell, max 248 248 311 248 248 302Hardness, Rockwell C, max 24 24 33 24 24 32TABLE 5 Rupture TestingGrade FTemperature, F [C] 1200 [650]Stress, ksi [MPa], min 33 [230]Time to rupture, h, min 25A1021/A1021M − 05 20153S6.2 Metallographic inspection shall be performed at 100magnification to determine the metallurgical structure, grainsize, and delta ferrite content. Visual examination for thevolume fraction of delta ferrite of various representative areasof examination is acceptable. When the visual estimationmethod indicates the delta ferrite content is greater than theallowed limit, the manufacturer may employTest Method E562for determining the acceptability of the lot.S7. Stress Rupture TestingGrade DS7.1 Stress rupture testing shall be conducted at 1200F[650C] and 26 000 psi [180 MPa] using a combination test barin accordance with Test Methods E292. Rupture must occur inthe smooth section of each test specimen. The test may bediscontinued after 25 h provided the certification so notes.Stress rupture testing is not required on bars less than1⁄2 in. indiameter or thickness.S8. Grain SizeGrade D and FS8.1 The average grain size shall be 4 or finer. Themaximum size of individual grains, distributed at random, shallbe a 2. When the average grain size is 5 or finer, only theaverage size need be reported. Grain size determination shallbe performed in accordance with Test Methods E112.S9. Mechanical PropertiesS9.1 Test samples shall be taken from an integral part ofeach forging whose drawing weight is over 500 lb [225 kg].S10. Forging TemperatureS10.1 The maximum part temperature during forging is2150F [1175C].S11. DecarburizationS11.1 Surface decarburization of forgings shall not exceed0.06 in. [1.5 mm].S12. Forging StockS12.1 Forging stock shall be supplied in the annealedcondition meeting the requirements of Table 4.S13. Stress ReliefS13.1 Material shall be stress relieved in accordance withthe requirements of Table 1.S14. Microstructure-Grade FS14.1 The microstructure shall be tempered martensite withno more than 1 delta ferrite.S14.2 Metallographic inspection shall be performed at 100magnification to determine metallurgical structure, grain size,and delta ferrite content. Visual examination for the volumefraction of delta ferrite of various representative areas ofexamination is acceptable. When the visual estimation methodindicates the delta ferrite content is greater than the allowedlimit, the manufacturer may employ Test Method E562 fordetermining the acceptability of the lot.ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent

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