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ASTM A1000 - A 1000M - 11.pdf

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ASTM A1000 - A 1000M - 11.pdf

Designation A1000/A1000M − 11Standard Specification forSteel Wire, Carbon and Alloy Specialty Spring Quality1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1000/A1000M; the number immediately following the designation indicates theyear of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of lastreapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope*1.1 This specification covers four different grades of roundand shaped plain carbon and alloy steel spring wire, uniform inquality and temper, intended for the manufacture of mechanicalsprings that can withstand moderate fatigue stresses over somerelatively low number of cycles. The quality level is betweenthe commercial quality grades of wire such as SpecificationsA401/A401M, A231/A231M, and A229/A229M and the valvespring quality grades such Specifications as A230/A230M,A232/A232M, and A877/A877M. It is similar to the grade TDreferenced in EN 10270-2 intended for medium fatiguelevels, such as required for clutch springs. This wire shall beeither in the annealed and cold-drawn or quenched andtempered condition as specified by purchaser.1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in non-conformancewith the standard.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A229/A229M Specification for Steel Wire, Quenched andTempered for Mechanical SpringsA230/A230M Specification for Steel Wire, Oil-TemperedCarbon Valve Spring QualityA231/A231M Specification for Chromium-Vanadium AlloySteel Spring WireA232/A232M Specification for Chromium-Vanadium AlloySteel Valve Spring Quality WireA370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testingof Steel ProductsA401/A401M Specification for Steel Wire, Chromium-Silicon AlloyA700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Meth-ods for Steel Products for ShipmentA751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemi-cal Analysis of Steel ProductsA877/A877M Specification for Steel Wire, Chromium-Silicon Alloy, Chrome-Silicon-Vanadium Alloy ValveSpring QualityA941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, RelatedAlloys, and FerroalloysE29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data toDetermine Conformance with SpecificationsE45 Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content ofSteel2.2 European StandardEN 10270-2 Steel Wire for Mechanical Springs Part 2Oil-Hardened and Tempered Springsteel Wire of Unal-loyed and Alloyed Steels33. Terminology3.1 Definitions3.1.1 For definition of terms used in this specification, seeTerminology A941.3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard3.2.1 commercial quality wirea grade of wire that is fairlycommon quality and intended for applications that are primar-ily static in nature, not involving significant fatigue loading.4. Ordering Information4.1 It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to specifyall requirements that are necessary for material under thisspecification. Such requirements are permitted to include, butare not limited to the following,4.1.1 Quantity mass,4.1.2 Name of material chromium-silicon alloy steel spe-cialty spring quality wire,4.1.3 Dimensions Table 1 and Section 9,4.1.4 Condition Section 7,4.1.5 Packaging Section 15,4.1.6 Heat analysis report, if requested 6.2,1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloysand is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.03 on Steel Rod and Wire.Current edition approved July 1, 2011. Published July 2011. Originally approvedin 1999. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as A1000 – 05. DOI 10.1520/A1000_A1000M-11.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3Available from European Committee for Standardization, rue de Stassart36,B-1050 Brussels*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;4.1.7 Certification or test report, or both, if specified Sec-tion 14, and4.1.8 ASTM designation and year of issue.NOTE 1A typical ordering description is as follows 40 000-lb.quenched and tempered chromium-silicon alloy steel specialty springquality wire, size 0.250 in. in 3000-lb coils to Specification A1000/A1000M dated _______, or for SI units, 20 000-kg quenched andtempered chromium-silicon alloy steel specialty spring quality wire, size6.00 mm in 1500-kg coils to Specification A1000/A1000M dated _______.5. Materials and Manufacture5.1 The steel may be made by any commercially acceptedsteel making process. The steel may be either ingot cast orstrand cast.5.2 The finished wire shall be free from detrimental pipeand undue segregation.6. Chemical Composition6.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements for chemicalcomposition specified in Table 2.6.2 Heat AnalysisEach heat of steel shall be analyzed bythe manufacturer to determine the percentage of elementsprescribed in Table 2. This analysis shall be made from a testspecimen preferably taken during the pouring of the heat.When requested, this shall be reported to the purchaser andshall conform to the requirements of Table 2.6.3 Product AnalysisAn analysis may be made by thepurchaser from finished wire representing each heat of steel.The average of all the separate determinations made shall bewithin the limits specified in the analysis column.6.4 For referee purposes, Test Methods, Practices, andTerminology A751 shall be used.7. Mechanical Properties7.1 Annealed and Cold DrawnWhen purchased in theannealed and cold-drawn condition, the wire shall have beengiven a sufficient amount of cold working to meet the purchas-er’s coiling requirements and shall be in a suitable condition torespond properly to heat treatment. In special cases thehardness, if desired, shall be stated in the purchase order.7.2 Quenched and Tempered7.2.1 Tensile Strength and RA, Round WireWhen pur-chased in the quenched and tempered condition, the tensilestrength and minimum percent reduction in area of round wire,sizes 0.105 in. [2.50 mm] and larger shall conform to therequirements prescribed in Tables 3-6.7.2.2 Tensile Strength, Shaped and Flat WireTensilestrength of shaped and flat rolled wires shall conform to thesetables based on the conversion to equivalent round dimensions.Percent reduction of area is not applicable to shaped and flatrolled wires.NOTE 2Equivalent round definition The cross sectional area ofnon-round wires converted to the round wire diameter.7.2.3 Tensile Strength VariationIn addition, the maximumtensile variation in a coil shall be 10 ksi [70 MPa].NOTE 3Any specimen breaking in the tensile grips shall be discardedand a new specimen tested if the specified mechanical properties are notachieved. If breakage in the tensile grips prevents conformance to percentreduction in area requirements, conformance to the wrap test see 7.3shall suffice.7.2.4 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be taken foreach five coils, or fraction thereof, in a lot. Each heat in a givenlot shall be tested.TABLE 1 Permissible Variations in Wire Dimensions Round andShapesASI UnitsDimension, mmPermissible Varia-tions, mmPermissible Out-Of-Round, mm0.5 to 2.0, incl 0.02 0.02Over 2.0 to 4.0, incl 0.03 0.03Over 4.0 to 9.5, incl 0.04 0.04Over 9.5 0.05 0.05Inch-Pound UnitsDimension, in.Permissible Varia-tions, in.Permissible Out-Of-Round, in.0.020 to 0.075, incl 0.0008 0.0008Over 0.075 to 0.148, incl 0.001 0.001Over 0.148 to 0.375, incl 0.0015 0.0015Over 0.375 0.002 0.002Permissible Variations in Wire Dimensions Flat RolledASI UnitsDimension, mmThicknessPermissible Varia-tions, mmWidthPermissible Varia-tions, mmAll 0.05 0.120Inch-Pound UnitsDimension, in.ThicknessPermissible Varia-tions, in.WidthPermissible Varia-tions, in.All 0.002 0.005AFor purposes of determining conformance with this specification, all specifiedlimits are absolute as defined in Practice E29.TABLE 2 Chemical RequirementsAnalysis, Grade AChromium-SiliconGrade BCarbonGrade CChromium-VanadiumGrade DChromium-Silicon-VanadiumCarbon 0.51 to 0.59 0.55 to 0.75 0.60 to 0.70 0.55 to 0.68Manganese 0.50 to 0.80 0.60 to 0.90 0.50 to 0.90 0.50 to 0.90Phosphorus 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 maxSulfur 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 maxSilicon 1.20 to 1.60 0.15 to 0.30 0.15 to 0.30 1.20 to 1.65Chromium 0.60 to 0.80A0.35 to 0.60 0.50 to 0.80VanadiumAA0.10 to 0.25 0.08 to 0.25ANot required.A1000/A1000M − 112Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;7.2.5 Location of TestsTest specimens shall be taken fromeither end of the coil.7.2.6 Test MethodThe tension test shall be made inaccordance with Test Methods and Definitions A370.7.3 Wrap Test7.3.1 Round quenched and tempered wire 0.157 in. [4.00mm] or smaller in diameter shall wrap on itself as an arborwithout breakage. Larger diameter wire up to and including0.315 in. [8.00 mm] shall wrap without breakage on a mandreltwice the wire diameter. The wrap test is not applicable to wireover 0.315 in. [8.00 mm] in diameter or to shaped and flatrolled wires.7.3.2 The special high tensile chrome silicon vanadiumgrade of round oil tempered wire 0.157 in. [4.00 mm] orsmaller in diameter shall wrap on a mandrel twice the diameterwithout breakage. Larger diameter wire up to and including0.315 in. [8.00 mm] shall wrap without breakage on a mandrelthree times the wire diameter. The wrap test is not applicable towire over 0.315 in. [8.00 mm] in diameter or to shaped and flatrolled wires.7.3.3 Test MethodThe wrap test shall be made in accor-dance with Test Methods and Definitions A370.8. Metallurgical Requirements8.1 Surface Condition8.1.1 The surface of the wire as received shall be free ofimperfections such as seams, pits, die marks, scratches, andother surface defects that are deeper than 1 of the wirediameter for round wire or 1 of the equivalent rounddiameter for shaped and flat rolled wire.TABLE 3 Tensile and RA RequirementsAChrome SiliconGrade ASI UnitsDiameter, mm MPa, min MPa, max Reduction of Area0.5 2100 2280B1.0 2070 2240B1.5 2030 2210B2.0 2000 2140B2.5 1965 2105 453.0 1930 2070 454.0 1900 2040 404.5 1830 1970 405.0 1810 1950 405.5 1790 1930 406.5 1760 1900 408.0 1730 1870 409.5 1690 1830 4011.0 1660 1800 3512.5 1630 1770 3514.0 1610 1750 3016.0 1590 1730 30Inch-Pound UnitsDiameter, in. ksi, min ksi, max Reduction of area, min 0.020 305 330B0.040 300 325B0.060 295 320B0.080 290 310B0.105 284 304 450.120 280 300 450.156 275 295 400.177 265 285 400.200 263 283 400.218 260 280 400.250 255 275 400.312 250 270 400.375 245 265 400.438 240 260 350.500 235 255 350.562 233 253 300.625 231 251 30ATensile strength values for intermediate diameters may be interpolated.BThe reduction of area test is not applicable to wire under 2.5 mm 0.105 in..TABLE 4 Tensile and RA RequirementsACarbon Grade BSI UnitsDiameter, mm MPa, min MPa, max Reduction of area0.5 2100 2070B1.0 1860 2030B2.0 1790 1960B2.5 1760 1900 453.0 1720 1860 454.0 1650 1790 404.5 1580 1720 405.5 1510 1650 406.5 1480 1620 408.0 1450 1590 409.5 1410 1550 4012.5 1380 1520 3516.0 1350 1490 30Inch-Pound UnitsDiameter, in. kSI, min kSI, maxReduction of area,min 0.020 275 300B0.040 270 295B0.080 260 285B0.105 255 275 450.120 250 270 450.156 240 260 400.177 235 255 400.218 225 245 400.250 215 235 400.312 210 230 400.375 205 225 400.500 200 220 350.625 195 215 30ATensile strength values for intermediate diameters may be interpolated.BThe reduction of area test is not applicable to wire under 2.5 mm .105 in..TABLE 5 Tensile and RA RequirementsAChrome VanadiumGrade CSI UnitsDiameter, mm MPa, min MPa, max Reduction Of area1.0 1860 2030B2.0 1760 1930B3.0 1650 1790 454.0 1620 1760 404.5 1590 1730 405.5 1520 1660 406.5 1480 1620 408.0 1450 1590 40Inch-Pound UnitsDiameter, in. kSI, min kSI, maxReduction of area,min 0.040 270 295B0.080 255 280B0.120 240 260 450.156 235 255 400.177 230 250 400.218 220 240 400.250 215 235 400.312 210 230 40ATensile strength values for intermediate diameters may be interpolated.BThe reduction of area test is not applicable to wire under 2.5 mm 0.105 in..A1000/A1000M − 113Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;8.1.2 Number of TestsOne test specimen shall be takenfrom each end of every coil.8.1.3 Test MethodThe surface shall be examined afteretching in a solution of equal parts of hydrochloric acid andwater that has been heated to approximately 80C for asufficient length of time to remove up to approximately 1 ofthe diameter of the wire. Test ends shall be examined using 10magnification.8.1.4 Eddy Current TestingUpon the agreement of theproducer and the purchaser, round and shaped wire shall be100 eddy current tested with a rotary probe or a stationarycoil, or both. The depth of surface defects to be detected shallalso be agreed upon by the producer and purchaser. Defectsequal to or deeper than this depth shall be marked with somemeans of identification, such as ink or paint, to facilitateremoval at a later stage in the processing.8.2 Decarburization8.2.1 Transverse sections of the wire when properlymounted, polished and etched shall show maximum completedecarburization of 0.3 of the wire diameter for round wiresand 0.3 of the equivalent round for shaped and flat rolledwire. Partial decarburization should not exceed a depth of1.5 of the diameter for round wires and 1.5 of theequivalent round diameter for shaped and flat rolled wire.8.2.2 Test MethodDecarburization shall be determined byetching a suitably polished transverse section of wire withnital. The entire periphery to be examined should be in a singleplane with no edge rounding.8.2.3 The entire periphery shall be examined at a magnifi-cation of no less than 100 for depth of free ferrite and totalaffected depth. Smaller wire sizes may require higher magni-fication. Measure the worst area present excluding decarbur-ization associated with seams or other surface imperfections,Complete decarburization exists when only free ferrite ispresent. Partial decarburization exists when ferrite is foundmixed with pearlite or tempered martensite. Structures of100 tempered martensite shall be defined as not decarbur-ized.8.2.4 Decarburization shall be checked on annealed wire bygiving a wire sample an austenitize, quench and temper heattreatment. A flat shall be ground on the sample prior to heattreatment. The flat shall have a minimum width equal to onehalf of the wire diameter. Any decarburizatio

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