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ASTM A1 - 00 (2010).pdf

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ASTM A1 - 00 (2010).pdf

Designation A1 − 00 Reapproved 2010Standard Specification forCarbon Steel Tee Rails1This standard is issued under the fixed designation A1; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of originaladoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.Anumber in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.Asuperscriptepsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1. Scope1.1 This specification covers carbon steel tee rails of nomi-nal weights of 60 lb/yd 29.8 kg/m and over for use in railwaytrack, including export and industrial applications.1.2 Supplementary requirements S1 and S2 shall apply onlywhen specified by the purchaser in the order.1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regardedas standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematicalconversions to SI units that are provided for information onlyand are not considered standard.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2A29/A29M Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy,Hot-Wrought, General Requirements forA700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and Loading Meth-ods for Steel Products for ShipmentE10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic MaterialsE127 Practice for Fabricating and Checking Aluminum Al-loy Ultrasonic Standard Reference BlocksE428 Practice for Fabrication and Control of Metal, Otherthan Aluminum, Reference Blocks Used in UltrasonicTesting2.2 American Railway Engineering and Maintenance ofWay Association AREMA Manual for Railway EngineeringSpecifications for Steel Rails, Chapter 4, Part 23,43. Ordering Information3.1 Orders for rails under this specification shall include thefollowing information3.1.1 ASTM designation and year of issue.3.1.2 Type of rail desired.3.1.3 Quantity tons or pieces as appropriate.3.1.4 Full identification of section with dimensional draw-ing, if required.3.1.5 Arrangement of drilled bolt holes, if any, with dimen-sional drawing, if required.3.1.6 Quantity of right-hand and left-hand Note 1 drilledrails, drilled both-end rails, and undrilled blank rails desired.3.1.7 Supplementary requirements that shall apply see S1and S2.3.1.8 Disposition of various classifications of rails see 8.3.6and 8.3.7.NOTE 1The right-hand or left-hand end of the rail is determined byfacing the side of the rail on which the brand raised characters appears.4. Materials and Manufacture4.1 Rail TypesRails shall be furnished as-rolled standardand alloy, head hardened on-line or off-line processes, orfully heat treated as agreed upon between the purchaser and themanufacturer.4.2 Melting PracticeThe steel shall be made by any of thefollowing processes basic-oxygen or electric-furnace.4.2.1 The steel shall be cast by a continuous process, inhot-topped ingots, or by other methods agreed upon betweenthe purchaser and the manufacturer.4.3 DiscardSufficient discard shall be taken from thebloom or ingot to ensure freedom from injurious segregationand pipe.4.4 Hydrogen Elimination4.4.1 Applicability4.4.1.1 Rails 60 through 70 lb/yd 29.8 through 34.8 kg/mare not subject to treatment for hydrogen elimination.4.4.1.2 Rails over 70 through 84 lb/yd over 34.8 through41.7 kg/m may be subjected to treatment for hydrogenelimination at the option of the manufacturer.4.4.1.3 Rails over 84 lb/yd 41.7 kg/m shall be processedby methods that prevent the formation of shatter cracks asagreed upon between the purchaser and the manufacturer.4.4.2 Rail heats shall be tested for hydrogen content usingeither a sampling/analytical method or a direct measurement1This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.01 on Steel Rails and Accessories.Current edition approved Nov. 1, 2010. Published November 2010. Originallyapproved in 1901. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as A1 – 002005. DOI10.1520/A0001-00R10.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3Available fromAmerican Railway Engineering and Maintenance of WayAssn.,8201 Corporate Drive, Suite 1125, Landover, MD 20785.4Adapted from AREMA Specifications for Steel Rails see 2.2.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;method of the liquid steel.The testing shall be performed eitherduring the continuous casting process or during ingot teeming.Hydrogen content shall be recorded and available for review orreporting at the request of the purchaser. The producer shalldefine the method used to determine hydrogen content, whichof the following methods are used for hydrogen removal, andpresent evidence of applicable procedures used to control thefinal rail hydrogen4.4.2.1 Vacuum degassing.4.4.2.2 Bloom control cooling.4.4.2.3 Rail control cooling.4.4.3 Rail Control-Cooling Procedure AREMA Specifica-tions for Steel RailsRails shall be control-cooled in accor-dance with the following procedure, except when producedfrom vacuum degassed steel or control-cooled blooms, inwhich case the rails may be air-cooled, and 4.4.3.1-4.4.3.5 arenot applicable.4.4.3.1 All rails shall be cooled on the hot beds or runwaysuntil full transformation is accomplished and then chargedimmediately into the containers. In no case should the rail becharged at a temperature below 725F 385C.4.4.3.2 The temperature of the rails before charging shall bedetermined with a reliable calibrated pyrometer at the top ofthe rail head at least 12 in. 305 mm from the end.4.4.3.3 The cover shall be placed on the container immedi-ately after completion of the charge and shall remain in placefor at least 10 h. After removal or raising of the lid of thecontainer, no rail shall be removed until the top layer of railshas fallen to 300F 149C or lower.4.4.3.4 The temperature between an outside rail and theadjacent rail in the bottom tier of the container at a point notless than 12 in. 305 mm nor more than 36 in. 915 mm fromthe rail end shall be recorded. This temperature shall be thecontrol for judging rate of cooling.4.4.3.5 The container shall be so protected and insulatedthat the control temperature shall not drop below 300F149C in 7 h for rails 100 lb/yd 49.7 kg/m in weight orheavier, from the time that the bottom tier is placed in thecontainer, and in 5 h for rails of less than 100 lb/yd in weight.If this cooling requirement is not met, the rails shall beconsidered control-cooled, provided that the temperature at alocation not less than 12 in. 305 mm from the end of a rail atapproximately the center of the middle tier does not drop below300F in less than 15 h.5. Chemical Composition5.1 The chemical composition of the standard, head hard-ened, and fully heat treated rail steel, determined as prescribedin 5.2.1, shall be within the limits shown in Table 1. Thechemical composition of alloy rail will be subject to agreementbetween the purchaser and the manufacturer.5.1.1 When ladle tests are not available, finished materialrepresenting the heat may be product tested. The productanalysis allowance beyond the limits of the specified ladleanalysis shall be within the limits for product analyses speci-fied in Table 2.5.2 Heat or Cast Analysis5.2.1 Separate analysis shall be made from test samplesrepresenting one of the first three and one of the last threeingots or continuously cast blooms preferably taken during thepouring of the heat. Determinations may be made chemicallyor spectrographically. Any portion of the heat meeting thechemical analysis requirements of Table 1 may be applied. Theanalysis, most representative of the heat clear of the transitionzone for continuous cast steel, shall be recorded as the officialanalysis, but the purchaser shall have access to all chemicalanalysis determinations.Additionally, any material meeting theproduct analysis limits shown in Table 2 may be applied aftertesting such material in accordance with Specification A29/A29M.5.2.2 Upon request by the purchaser, samples shall befurnished to verify the analysis as determined in 5.2.1.6. Interior Condition6.1 For both ingot steel and continuously cast steel, betweenmacroetch testing shall be performed as agreed upon betweenthe purchaser and the manufacturer.6.2 Macroetch TestingRail soundness shall be evaluatedby macroetching in a hot acid solution.6.2.1 Sample Location and Frequency6.2.1.1 Ingot SteelA test piece representing the top end ofthe top rail from one of the first three, middle three, and lastthree ingots of each heat shall be macroetched.6.2.1.2 Continuous Cast SteelA test piece shall be mac-roetched representing a rail from each strand from the begin-ning of each sequence and whenever a new ladle is begun,which is the point representative of the lowest level in thetundish that is, the point of lowest ferrostatic pressure. Oneadditional sample from the end of each strand of the last heatTABLE 1 Chemical RequirementsHeat AnalysisElementNominal Weight, lb/yd kg/m60 to 8429.8 to41.7,incl85 to 11442.2 to56.6,incl11557.0and overCarbon 0.55 to 0.68 0.70 to 0.80 0.74 to 0.84Manganese 0.60 to 0.90 0.70 to 1.00 0.80 to 1.10APhosphorus, max 0.040 0.035 0.035Sulfur, max 0.050 0.040 0.040Silicon 0.10 to 0.50 0.10 to 0.50 0.10 to 0.50AThe upper manganese limit may be extended to 1.25 by the manufacturer tomeet the Brinell hardness specification. When manganese exceeds 1.10 , theresidual alloy contents will be held to 0.25 maximum nickel; 0.25 maximumchromium; 0.10 maximum molybdenum; and 0.03 maximum vanadium.TABLE 2 Product Analysis Allowance Beyond Limits of SpecifiedChemical AnalysisPercent UnderMinimum LimitPercent OverMaximum LimitCarbon 0.04 0.04Manganese 0.06 0.06Phosphorus . . . 0.008Sulfur . . . 0.008Silicon 0.02 0.02AAContinuously cast allowances shall be 0.05 over maximum limit for silicon.A1 − 00 20102Copyright by ASTM Intl all rights reserved;in the sequence shall also be tested. A new tundish isconsidered to be the beginning of a new sequence.6.2.2 If any test specimen does not conform to the accept-able macroetch pictorial standards agreed upon between thepurchaser and the manufacturer, further samples shall be takenfrom the same strand or ingot. For continuously cast steel, tworetests shall be taken one from each side of the original sampleat positions decided by the manufacturer, and the materialbetween the two retest positions shall be rejected. For ingotsteel, testing shall progress down the ingot. If any retest fails,testing shall continue until acceptable internal quality isexhibited. All rails represented by failed tests shall be rejected.7. Hardness Properties7.1 Rails shall be produced as specified by the purchaserwithin the limits found in Table 3 and Table 4,7.2 The Brinell hardness test shall be performed on a rail, apiece of rail at least 6 in. 152 mm long cut from a rail of eachheat of steel or heat-treatment lot, or from a ground/milledtransverse sample cut from the 6-in. piece. The test shall bemade on the side or top of the rail head after decarburizedmaterial has been removed to permit an accurate determinationof hardness. Alternately, the test may be made on the preparedtransverse ground/milled sample3⁄8 in. from the top railsurface.7.3 The test shall otherwise be conducted in accordancewith Test Method E10.7.4 If any test result fails to meet the specifications, twoadditional checks shall be made on the same piece. If bothchecks meet the specified hardness, the heat or heat treatmentlot meets the hardness requirement. If either of the additionalchecks fails, two additional rails in the heat or lot shall bechecked. Both of these checks must be satisfactory for the heator lot to be accepted. If any one of these two checks fails,individual rails may be tested for acceptance.7.5 If the results for off-line head hardened rails and fullyheat treated rails fail to meet the requirements of 7.1, the railsmay be retreated at the option of the manufacturer, and suchrails shall be retested in accordance with 7.2 and 7.3.8. Permissible Variations of Dimension, Weight, andOther Physical Attributes8.1 Section8.1.1 The section of the rail shall conform to the designspecified by the purchaser.8.1.2 A variation of 0.015 in. 0.38 mm less or 0.040 in.1.02 mm greater than the specified height will be permittedmeasured at least 1 in. 25.4 mm from each end.8.1.3 A variation of 0.030 in. 0.76 mm less or 0.030 in.greater than the specified rail head width will be permittedmeasured at least 1 in. 25.4 mm from each end.8.1.4 Avariation of 0.050 in. 1.27 mm in the total width ofthe base will be permitted.8.1.5 No variation will be allowed in dimensions affectingthe fit of the joint bars, except that the fishing templateapproved by the purchaser may stand out laterally not morethan 0.060 in. 1.5 mm when measured within the 18-in.460-mm end locations.8.1.6 A variation of 0.060 in. 1.5 mm in the asymmetry ofthe head with respect to the base will be permitted.8.1.7 A variation of 0.020 in. 0.51 mm less or 0.040 in.1.02 mm greater than the specified thickness of web will bepermitted.8.1.8 Verification of tolerances shall be made using appro-priate gages as agreed upon between the purchaser and themanufacturer.8.2 Length8.2.1 The standard length of rails shall be 39 ft 11.9 m or80 ft 24.4 m, or both, when measured at a temperature of60F 15C.8.2.2 Up to 9 for 39 ft rail or 15 for 80 ft rail of theentire order will be accepted in lengths shorter than thestandard, varying by 1 ft 0.3 m as follows 79, 78, 77, 75, 70,65, 60, 39, 38, 37, 36, 33, 30, 27, and 25 ft.8.2.3 A variation of7⁄16 in. 11 mm for 39-ft 11.9-m railsor7⁄8 in. 22 mm for 80-ft rails 24.4-m will be permitted.8.2.4 Length variations other than those specified in 8.2.2and 8.2.3 may be established by agreement between thepurchaser and the manufacturer.8.3 Drilling8.3.1 Circular holes for joint bolts shall be drilled toconform to the drawings and dimensions furnished by thepurchaser.8.3.2 A variation of −0 and 1⁄16 in. 1.6 mm in the size ofthe bolt holes will be permitted.8.3.3 A variation of1⁄32 in. 0.8 mm in the location of theholes will be permitted.8.3.4 Fins and burrs at the edges of bolt holes shall beeliminated. The drilling process shall be controlled to preventmechanical or metallurgical damage to the rail.TABLE 3 Hardness Requirements of Standard Carbon RailsNominal Weight, lb/yd kg/m60 to 8429.8 to 41.7,incl85 to 11442.2 to 56.6,incl115 57.0and overBrinell Hardness, min 201 285 300TABLE 4 Hardness Requirements of High-Strength RailsSee notesNOTE 1Hardne

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